Web Form Design Patterns: Sign-Up Forms, Part 2


Last week we have presented first findings of our web forms survey1. The main objective of the survey was to provide designers and developers with some intuition of how effective web forms are designed; we also presented some guidelines of how an effective and user-friendly web form can be achieved.

We have focused on sign-up forms as we wanted to consider further crucial forms (e.g. checkout forms) separately. Afterwards we’ve gone through each and every one sign-up form of the selected sites and analyzed the design approaches implemented in these forms. Below we present the second part of our findings — the results of our survey among web-forms of 100 popular web-sites where web-forms (should) matter.

Please notice that this post is not about checkout forms — that’s a topic for another discussion, we may consider them separately in one of the upcoming posts. We would like to thank Wufoo2 for providing us with a framework to conduct our survey.

3. Functionality of the forms Link

In the first part of our research we have considered the placement of the sign-up links and sign-up forms as well as on the visual appearance of forms. However, no matter how nice a design looks like, if the form doesn’t work properly, the completion rates will remain low. Let us now consider the functionality of the sign-up forms as well as typical problems, patterns and solutions used when it comes to the design of these forms.

3.1. Hover, active, focus – effects in use? Link

Apparently, to improve form completion rates designers try to avoid all kind of distractions and offer a clear, unambiguous and simple web form. This is essentially the reason why any visual effects are used very moderately — if used at all.


  • 84% of the web forms which we’ve reviewed didn’t have any kind of hover, active or focus-effects,
  • 16% used very subtle hover-effects.

3.2. Help, support, tooltips: static or dynamic? Link

Sometimes the label of the input fields isn’t concrete enough; however, users need to have a sufficient understanding of the information they need to provide. Which characters are allowed in the username? How many characters should a password have? Does a provided e-mail automatically become login to use the service?

Hints and tooltips provide assistance helping users to minimize the number of times an input should be reconsidered. Besides, there is nothing more annoying that some input field which doesn’t accept user’s input although it seems to be perfectly correct. To avoid it, designers make use of (usually) unobtrusive and clear hints.


57% of the reviewed web forms provided “static” help — tips which are supposed to explain what is expected from the user’s input; these tips are obviously placed next to the input field. 10% of the tooltips appear on demand – usually after some help-icon is clicked or when the user is typing the information in the input field.

3.3. Help, support, tooltips: where are they placed? Link

When providing users with assistance it is necessary to make sure not that the help is simply provided, but that it can be easily found and understood by users. It is crucial to make sure that users don’t make mistakes associating a hint to an input field. To achieve it you need to know where users expect hints to appear. So where are hints and help usually placed within the form?


If hints and help appear, they appear…

  • below the field (57%)
  • on the right side of the field (26%)
  • above the field (13%)
  • on the left side of the field (4%)

We have observed a strong trend toward hints placed directly below the input field. Usually such hints have a slightly different color, in most cases lighter than the main content.

3.4. Input validation: static or Ajax? Link

Although Ajax seems to have literally flooded web sites with a rich user interaction over the last years, it still hasn’t managed to reach a critical mass among popular web-services. Surprisingly, we weren’t able to identify a trend toward Ajax. The “classic” validation techniques which validate input after the user has clicked on the submit-button are more popular than real-time-validation with JavaScript.

According to our research,

  • 30% of the forms displayed only an error-message at the top of the form (no input fields were highlighted),
  • 29% had highlighted input fields with corresponding messages next to the input field (no error-messages were provided at the top of the page),
  • 25% used both error-messages and input fields,
  • 22% used real-time validation with Ajax,
  • 14% used JavaScript-error warnings,
  • 1% used a system-message with a “go back”-link.

3.5. Design of error messages Link

As you can see, we have identified six different types of error validation. It is remarkable that 14% of the forms still use Javascript-error-windows to communicate problems (e.g. YouSendIt6, Mail.ru7, Newsvine128, Clipmarks9, Yandex10, see screenshot below) while only 22% had at least partial Ajax-validation (usually for checking available user names). It is also remarkable that not a single site had no validation whatsoever.

Newsvine128 uses JavaScript-error warnings to communicate problems.

Usually designers tend to report mistakes using a) error messages appearing after the submit-button is clicked and / or b) highlighting “incorrect” input fields visually. In the first case errors are usually bulleted and presented as a list at the top of the page, before the form. In the second case usually the color of the border of the “wrong” input field is highlighted together with the label of the field (in most cases with a red text color and red background color).

Sometimes designers combine both techniques and use error message as well as the input field highlighting. For instance, consider the sign-up form on Ning2113 (see image below) which combines both techniques.


Usually, red is used to indicate mistakes; however it is not necessarily the case. Tickspot15, Mixx.com16 and Furl17 use yellow to communicate problems occurred during the form completion.


However, if any color is used at all to communicate a successful registration, then it is green. It was the case in 97% of web-sites where success was highlighted visually.


3.6. Is it necessary to confirm the e-mail? Link

Only in 18% of the cases it was necessary to confirm the e-mail (e.g. Odeo20, Ning2113). To be honest, we don’t really see any rationale in asking users to re-type the e-mail — after all, users can see what they input because the e-mail field is not starred out (updated). Do you?


3.7. Is it necessary to confirm the password? Link

It sounds reasonable to ask the user to confirm the input as the user doesn’t see the information typed in (he/she sees asterisks instead). However, many sited decide to remove one input field to minimize the time required to complete the form.


In 72% of the cases it was necessary to confirm the password. However, many large sites such as Facebook, Friendster, LinkedIn, Stumbleupon, Pownce and Twitter don’t require password confirmation.

3.8. Is captcha in use? Link

While users would definitely be glad if captchas were gone, they are necessary in practice, because web-sites need to make it impossible for spambots to create numerous accounts as otherwise they would need to filter spam accounts in the database.

According to our research,

  • 52% of the sites don’t use captcha,
  • in 39% of the cases it was impossible to reload the captcha without reloading the whole form. This is really dramatic from the usability point of view.

However, we couldn’t identify a trend toward sign-up forms with or without captchas. In any case, if you use a captcha, please make sure that it is either always easily readable or users can reload the image in case it is not readable. Some sites haven’t offered the possibility to reload the captcha, but Digg, AOL, Slashdot, Google and Last.fm have made it possible to the users to listen to it in case it is hard to recognize.

3.9. Cancel-button in use? Link

When we were coming up with the design problems to consider when designing web forms, we have expected sign-up forms to not have a cancel-button, as it doesn’t really make much sense for the users to abort the form completion after all fields have been typed in. Yet we were partly wrong.

The cancel-button was used only in 8% of the cases. In some of these cases the “cancel”-button came right after the “terms and conditions”-section (e.g. Zoho Writer24). Consequently, if users do not want to agree to the service conditions, they could abort the process. On the other side, some services offer a payment plan before the registration (e.g. Crazyegg25). In case users have selected the wrong payment plan they can get back with the cancel-button and select another plan they prefer.


Apart from that: we just don’t understand why Dzone27 has a cancel-button placed on the left in its sign-up form.

If the cancel-button is used, it is placed on the right side of the submit-button (4%). Among the sites reviewed in the post cancel and submit-buttons didn’t have a strong visual difference and were placed next to each other. From the usability point of view it makes more sense to use a clear visual distinction between primary action buttons and secondary action buttons and introduce a significant amount of space to clearly separate them.

3.10. Alignment of the submit-button Link

Depending on the form layout it may make sense to align the submit-button on the left, on the right side or place it in the middle of the layout. Designers seem to have a strong preference toward left-aligned submit-buttons (56%), followed by centered buttons (26%).


Right-aligned submit-button is still popular (17%), however it is often used when designers want to indicate the next step of the registration. In such cases submit-buttons are often titled “Continue” or “Next”. Reason: in usual desktop-applications “Next”-button is also often right-aligned.

3.11. Thank-you message Link

While few years ago most services offered a simple, basic thank-you message after a successful registration (usually with a link to the login-page), now most sites try to motivate users to explore the service immediately.

  • 45% of the forms asked just registered users to proceed with submitting further information, finding friends in the networks, suggesting the site to friends or filling out his or her profile.
  • 33% of the forms presented “places to go” and functions to explore in an engaging, user-friendly-tone,
  • 4% offered a basic “thank you”-message,
  • 2% had a redirect to the homepage.

Further findings Link

  • tab index was used correctly in 99% of the cases (the only exception was Habrahabr29)
  • 24% of forms used conversational talk, trying to address users needs by speaking with them through labels. Informal phrases such as “What’s your name?”, “Your e-mail, please?” or “I’d like to…” are common in this context.
  • 38% of sites prefer to remain formal and use business talk, asking users the required information user-friendly (e.g. “Your name”, “Confirm password” etc.),
  • 38% of sites use system talk; here visitors are asked for their “Login”, “User password”, “Location” etc.

Bottom line Link

Let’s conclude with a brief overview of the findings presented above. Please keep in mind that we have considered only sign-up forms.

  • sign-up forms don’t have any hover, active or focus-effects (84%),
  • hints and help are either static (57%) or dynamic (33%) and appear below the input field (57%) or on the right side of the field (26%),
  • static validation is as popular as dynamic validation — no trend toward Ajax;
  • e-mail confirmation is not used (82%),
  • password confirmation is used (72%),
  • captcha can be used or not used (48% vs. 52%),
  • cancel button is not used (92%),
  • the submit-button is left-aligned (56%) or centered (26%),
  • thank-you message motivates users to proceed with exploring the services of the site (45%).

Footnotes Link

  1. 1 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/07/04/web-form-design-patterns-sign-up-forms/
  2. 2 http://www.wufoo.com
  3. 3 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/images/web-form-design-patterns-part2/hover.jpg
  4. 4 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/images/web-form-design-patterns-part2/help-support.jpg
  5. 5 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/images/web-form-design-patterns-part2/help.jpg
  6. 6 http://www.yousendit.com/
  7. 7 http://www.mail.ru
  8. 8 http://www.newsvine.com
  9. 9 http://www.clipmarks.com
  10. 10 http://passport.yandex.ru
  11. 11 https://www.newsvine.com/_tools/new/user
  12. 12 http://www.newsvine.com
  13. 13 http://www.ning.com
  14. 14 https://www.ning.com/main/profile/signUp?target=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ning.com%2Fhome%2Fapps%2Fcreate%3FappUrl%3Dsocialnetwork%26network_name%3D%26network_url%3D&from=home
  15. 15 http://www.tickspot.com/
  16. 16 http://www.mixx.com/
  17. 17 http://www.furl.net/
  18. 18 http://www.tickspot.com/
  19. 19 http://www.tickspot.com/
  20. 20 http://www.odeo.com
  21. 21 http://www.ning.com
  22. 22 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/images/web-form-design-patterns-part2/re-type-email.jpg
  23. 23 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/images/web-form-design-patterns-part2/re-type-pass.jpg
  24. 24 http://writer.zoho.com/jsp/home.jsp?serviceurl=%2Findex.do
  25. 25 http://www.crazyegg.com
  26. 26 http://www.dzone.com/links/users/register.html
  27. 27 http://www.dzone.com/links/users/register.html
  28. 28 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/images/web-form-design-patterns-part2/submit-alignment.jpg
  29. 29 http://www.habrahabr.ru/

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Vitaly Friedman loves beautiful content and doesn’t like to give in easily. Vitaly is writer, speaker, author and editor-in-chief of Smashing Magazine. He runs responsive Web design workshops, online workshops and loves solving complex UX, front-end and performance problems in large companies. Get in touch.

  1. 1

    More like these, pleeeeease…

    Thank you guys!!!

  2. 2

    Nikola Krstevski

    July 8, 2008 10:39 am

    As always, the SM did a fine job… I’m impressed. I mean, I always take care when making web forms… Never thought I’d see somebody neglecting to, for example, put a tip next to a form field or something like that. It is so good to have a website that actually reminds people what they are forgetting to do.

  3. 3

    This is an interesting post…but I do have one question. What are the conversion rates for all of these different methods? I mean it’s cool to observe how popular websites are doing things, and we can assume that they must be doing something right, but just because a method is the most popular doesn’t mean it is the most successful.

    Any thoughts?

  4. 4

    ajax validation is a great thing, i dont understand why php is more popular

  5. 5

    Vitaly Friedman & Sven Lennartz

    July 8, 2008 10:56 am

    @Wes: of course, you are absolutely right. If many popular sites use some design pattern, it doesn’t necessarily mean that this pattern is the best option to choose (particularly, from the usability point of view). In fact we are going to make a comprehensive research and present guidelines for effective web form design in one of our upcoming articles – based on recent research findings and eyetracking studies. However, first we wanted to get a better understanding of how current design patterns look like. Please stay tuned.

  6. 6

    Love it :D Thanks Smashing!

  7. 7

    gracias por los tips

  8. 8

    Vitaly Friedman & Sven Lennartz

    July 8, 2008 11:00 am

    @all: please keep in mind that the results presented above are not our suggestions: this is how it is done in practice, not necessarily how one should do it in practice.

  9. 9

    Nice. Thanks.

  10. 10

    As always, wonderful article. I was thinking about asking you guys (and gals) ;-) to do a study on signup forms. You guys are eerily timing.

    Great Job!

  11. 11

    IMO cancel/reset buttons are just redundant. If the person wanted to change something on the form they could just click the field and change it. Hopefully this is a trend that will die out completely.

    Niki Brown Niki Brown

  12. 12

    As a studying professional of web design architecture tips and tools like this are crucial to my self education. I hear it from web developers routinely about how to make something like this that is seen as simple. And we all routinely make mistakes that people before us have already figured out and made standard. So when you see it in action like this it becomes that simple. Thankyou!

  13. 13

    How about doing this in pdf, to download?
    I would appreciate it

  14. 14

    Thanks for the info! As always, a well thought out and presented study. It’s a great analysis of how some companies do things, but that doesn’t mean they are the best ways. So, for a follow up, how about a “best sign up forms” post?

    -Ben Carlson

  15. 15

    Great information! Thanks a lot! I’d like to see the effectiveness of these different styles charted too, if possible. :)

  16. 16

    Keep these coming! Very interesting!

  17. 17

    Is it necessary to confirm the e-mail? In my opinion, it is very necessary to confirm the email.

    If you flub your email address, you’re communication line is screwed, especially if the service you’re signing up for has a “Click this link to confirm your account”.

  18. 18

    Whatever server you’re grabbing the screenshots from is REALLY slow.

  19. 19

    Great post guys. As for the annoying captchas, we have been implementing this CSS trick from ModernBlue. Basically it hides a text field so humans don’t see it but bots do. If a bot completes the form, it goes nowhere. You can read more on it here – http://www.modernblue.com/web-design-blog/fighting-spam-with-css/

    Anything to streamline a form submission is awesome.

    – Tony Chester | OnWired

  20. 20

    great writeup but where’s the stats on whether they used or as submit buttons?

  21. 21

    thats – ‘ or as submit buttons?’

  22. 22

    Regarding Captchas, I interviewed a blind person a couple of weeks ago and he said, graphic captchas aren’t exactly barrier free. A better use would be a simple addition i.e. write down the answer of 11+7. Some captchas have audio files, but why go to all the trouble.

  23. 23

    Agreeing with Lee…

    Confirming the email might be the single most important function of the form. An account without a correct email address can lead to very serious consequences – depending on the nature of the website. The small extra step of re-entering an email and/or confirming activation through email can prevent major aggravation later, especially with paid services, renewals, classified ads, etc.

    And believe me, people mis-type their email addresses all the time…

  24. 24

    Hi guys, great article, what were your sources for this and how many sites did your survey/research?

  25. 25

    One who follow others footsteps, never comes forword.

    I allways do things my way, but I do enjoy researching. Very nice article


  26. 26

    One thing I dislike is the use of red text for errors. I am colorblind so red does not stand out to me. I realize it does for most people. But there are a good number of folks like me for whom simple red text is not sufficiently noticeable.

  27. 27

    Eye opening article… great work as always.. Thanks guys

  28. 28

    this article could not have come at a better time! We’ve just finished a very unsuccessful online competition with data capture and we think our form may have put people off. We’re just working on the next one and we’ll be taking this article into account. Thanks for the great info guys!

  29. 29

    This entire article was by far the best article on Smashing Magazine

  30. 30

    thanks alot :)

  31. 31

    Very thorough article, keep up the good work!

    Too bad this is only “how many sites do today”. I would love some additional information on “recommended best practice”.

  32. 32

    ah-ha! just as i thought, tooltips rule when placed under input field.

  33. 33

    tab index was used correctly in 99% of the cases

    Does that mean that form elements were tabbed through in the correct order or that 99% of the forms you looked at used the tabindex attribute?

  34. 34

    Great article. Learned some valuable lessons.

    One small thing though: In the figure for 3.10, why isn’t the “centered” column in the middle?
    It would make a lot more sense…

  35. 35

    Vitaly Friedman & Sven Lennartz

    July 9, 2008 2:21 am

    @John Faulds: it means that form elements were tabbed through in the correct order.

  36. 36

    Great Posting. That’s the reason why I am visiting SmashingMagazine regulary. Free Icons can be found on Google, too. More of this content, please.

  37. 37

    Thank you !

  38. 38

    Geert van Grunderbeek

    July 9, 2008 3:33 am

    Sorry, i don’t need statistics. i need recommendations instead of getting to know what most people do

  39. 39

    Vitaly Friedman & Sven Lennartz

    July 9, 2008 3:43 am

    @Geert van Grunderbeek: please take a look at comment #5.

  40. 40

    thank you for this great article!

  41. 41

    This was useful, but I have to agree with Lee about asking the user to confirm his/her email.
    A simple typo could lead to something far more serious, as well as being a right pain if you ever forget your password.

  42. 42

    Geez. Smashing Magazine has for the longest time and still continues to be the first thing I look at every morning (even before email). Keep up the good work.

  43. 43

    Now this is the kind of content I like, not just a list of other people’s content.

    I’m not sure about the massive charts though.

  44. 44

    I always wanted to know how many websites require email verification, in which they sent you an email and you have to click the link to verify that it is actually your email.

  45. 45

    @Vitaly Friedman & Sven Lennartz

    This is great collection of research, but I’m interested in seeing the follow up articles that relate these design patterns to conversion rates and how users actually feel about the patterns. Right now, this says very little about what designers should do, but it definitely has the potential with enough user research to be a great source for the “ought to”.

  46. 46

    @neliason, RE: colorblindness & error messages

    One thing I dislike is the use of red text for errors. I am colorblind so red does not stand out to me. I realize it does for most people. But there are a good number of folks like me for whom simple red text is not sufficiently noticeable.

    Some of the examples above use icons. Are the shapes of good icons useful to you for highlighting errors or important information from the rest of a form page’s content, or would you rather see more contrast such as error messages in bold, italicized, or surrounded by a border? What has been the most useful to you as you’re using sign-up or order forms yourself?

  47. 47

    Pretty nifty article, but do you have any metrics related to the actual effectiveness of these placements? Percentages of placements is great, but effectiveness would be even better. (And why did you put this allowed tags tip above the input box… jk)

  48. 48

    Fantastic as always

  49. 49

    Poramaporn Suwakon

    July 9, 2008 5:44 pm

    Great article! give a new insight for a new web developer.

  50. 50

    Awesome article!

    Very useful for designers and developers around the globe!

    It’s always nice seeing what other’s opinions are on a given topic in survey (straight to the point) form.



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