Marketing Rules and Principles for Freelancers

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Freelancers have it hard. I mean, really hard. In theory, the idea of working for yourself, of being able to choose who you work with and what you work on, sounds like the perfect job. In practice though, it’s a lot more than just working on amazing projects for amazing clients from the comfort of your own home.

There is a tremendous amount of competition out there, and a lot of it is willing to play dirty, cut-throat and underhanded to beat you to the clients. How are you supposed to get ahead of those guys? Is it even possible to earn an honest buck? Thankfully, it is possible and can be a lot easier than you think.

Marketing is a brand game

Marketing and its in-your-face division Advertising are all about one thing. Building brand equity. If you take away only one concept from this article, please let it be this one! In this internet fueled economy, brand strength is everything! But brand and brand equity are often misunderstood concepts, the easiest way to think about brand equity is that it’s the sum total of feelings people get when they think about your business or service. And it’s important to remember that brand equity can be positive or negative.

http://kiva.org
A company like Kiva1 has copious amounts of positive brand equity – their business impacts the world in a positive way and they are nearly universally liked because they are fair and pleasant to work with.

Madoff

On the other hand, negative brand equity (like Mr. Madoff2), is that horrible, sinking feeling that people get when any mention of your name is raised, which, as you can imagine, makes doing business very difficult.

Brand equity is one of the most monumentally important parts of running a successful business. If people associate your business with nice feelings and positive images – they will want to work with you. If they associate nothing but let downs and suffering with your brand, it doesn’t matter how good your work is, no one will ever come knocking.

Let’s take it from the top

From the very first step setting out as a freelancer, you’re giving up the security of a consistent paycheck for the freedom to work with who you want and when you want. There are a lot of risks, but there are also plenty of rewards for those who succeed. First time freelancers and those just starting out often ask about finding those initial clients. A reasonable request: but one that is, unfortunately, very hard to answer. Starting a business, especially a one man shop (in the way that most freelancers operate) is a very individual process. Everyone has their own story and their own path. However; after conversations with many freelancers and my own experiences, I’ve come to learn that there are a few common themes that can go a long way towards helping rookie freelancers get up and running.

It pays to have a plan

In the beginning, it’s tempting to try and take every job that comes your way. But taking every job is a mistake3. You will end up over-stretched on vastly different projects, trying to work with clients in industries that you know nothing about. Instead, take some time before you even start trying to recruit clients to formulate a plan. Ask yourself what type of work you want to do, with what types of clients? Knowing your audience and knowing your focus from the outset will help you to qualify prospects and qualify their projects.

For example, imagine that, after much reflection and research, you decide that you want to focus solely on designing and building webpages for Broadway actors. You live in New York City and many of your friends are actors, plus you just love the theatre. From that decision, you now have a clearly defined market and a clearly defined product for that market. Finding prospects and explaining your business becomes easier for you, and easier for those prospects to understand.

Tip: The Elevator Pitch: An elevator pitch is a one and a half to two minute summation of what your business is and how it benefits your prospective clients. If you can’t concisely explain what it is that you do and how it helps your clients in that short amount of time it’s a pretty good indication that you need to focus your business goals a little more.

Having a clearly defined plan also simplifies the process of qualifying clients and potential projects: If it doesn’t fit into your plan – don’t take the work, it’s that simple. It may feel counter-productive at the start to be turning prospective clients away but, remember, you’re in this for the long haul and building a brand around your work takes time, commitment and focus. You can’t build a brand by working for everyone doing whatever project they happen to have.

Every person you know is your audience

When you’re constructing your plan, it’s important to think about what you want to work on and where you want to be in the future but don’t forget to include the groups that you are already a part of and the people you already know. Your hobbies can be a great source of business and a great way to get your freelancing business off the ground. If you have a lot of friends that are actors, and you love the theatre – that might be a good industry to focus on.

If you really love photography – you can focus on serving galleries or photographers. If you already know you’re passionate about the subject material, doing the work becomes that much easier! And you’ve already won half the battle with the people that know (and trust) you, so don’t be afraid to ask. Family, friends, old coworkers; they are all potential clients. A word of warning though; mixing business with pleasure can be dangerous territory and certainly not the area for hard selling tactics. Here are a few guidelines to make sure your sales pitch remains respectful of your current relationships:

  1. Make sure you’re clear about your intentions. If you’re starting a new business – it should be clear that you are going to be charging for your services. Be certain, from the start, that your potential client (and friend) knows that you’re not giving work away for free.
  2. Only offer help where you can make an honest, positive difference. These people trust you, don’t abuse that trust just to build your portfolio. In the long run, your friendship (and your reputation) is more important than your portfolio.
  3. Start small and over-deliver. Don’t promise the moon in order to sell your services. It’s always better to start with a small project and execute it perfectly. If you have an idea on how to expand the project, discuss it after you’ve proven you’re a genius.

Buy local, Be local

Another good place to start is by focusing locally. While it’s certainly more intimidating to walk into a local business and try to sell you services face to face, it can also be a lot more powerful. It is important to remember that not everyone is as comfortable with doing business over the internet as us web professionals; for many clients, it’s easier to put trust in another local business because they can see and touch the person with whom they are doing business. Physical meetings settle fears about fly-by-night internet operations that might just be trying to get their check and deliver something sub-standard.

small town
Original image by Darin Barry4

But face to face selling is a lot more difficult than sending out a few hundred emails and waiting for the responses to come pouring in. Here are a few tips for successful face to face selling:

  1. Be Prepared: It’s not just for the Boy Scouts! Make sure you understand your client’s business before you walk through the door. It’s an instant credibility booster when you can show that you clearly understand the problems that your prospective client is facing.
  2. Show your past successes: Have a few anecdotes and a few samples of your work ready to show. Not an entire tome of every site you’ve ever had a hand in – just a few of the best will suffice.
  3. Don’t be afraid to ask: When you’ve shown that you understand your prospective clients issues and challenges and you’ve established the quality of your work, it’s time to ask for what you want. Don’t beat around the bush, just tell the prospective client what benefit you can provide them and how much it will cost them. Be forthcoming and honest about what you charge and, above all, don’t be embarrassed about the number you give them; this is business after all.

Working locally is also a great way to build a community around your brand. A community that you can touch and feel and talk to on a regular basis can be a gold mine for freelancers because smaller, local-run businesses are generally well connected with each other and are quick to offer recommendations (when deserved) to other local businesses. I’ve heard of freelancers that have built websites for, quite literally, every small to medium sized business in their town. They started with one and, based on glowing recommendations and personal connections, were comfortably in work for years to come.

Expanding your reach

So you’ve established yourself, you’ve got a steady flow of business and you’re relatively comfortable, but how do you take your business to the next level? How can you earn more while maintaing the same hours?

Hitting an earnings plateau is a common problem for small businesses, especially one-person operations. Sure, you could bring in employees or sub-contract out some of your work to other freelancers but your underlying problem still remains. You are doing work for other small to medium sized businesses that can only afford to pay a certain amount. To make the jump into a higher tax bracket the name of the game is brand recognition and differentiation. People far and wide need to know your brand and they need to have an acute understanding of why they know your brand. In essence, you need to set your business apart from, and above, the competition.

Cast a wide net

Moving from a client base of small fish to one of big fish takes time and, unless you live in one of the major corporate centers of the world, it takes geographical expansion. You cannot source all of your work locally anymore – and this is where advertising comes into play. Contrary to what many web personalities these days would have you believe, advertising is not dead. No, in fact, it’s more alive and more helpful that you may know! The trick with advertising though, is getting it right:

  1. Favor highly targeted, captive audiences: Place your ads within ad networks who cater only to your design/development niche. Broad campaigns are costly and yield low conversion rates, whereas targeted ads to people who are actively looking for a web designer or developer can cost far less and provide many more conversions.
  2. Place the ads yourself: By directly contacting small niche blogs and other sites that you know to be frequented by the exact clients you hope to attract you can generally pay less for advertising space. In addition, forming a relationship with the people on the other end is likely to allow you more control over when and how your ads are shown.
  3. Maintain a consistent message: Make sure that all of your advertising is consistent with your brand. And I’m not just talking about the design of your ads. Your message and your tone are just as important as how your ad looks. Consistency across all of these areas will help to build a solid brand identity.
  4. Publicity Stunts 2.0: Better yet, save those ad dollars, challenge yourself to pull off something incredible in a short period of time (build a working web app in 12 hours, etc.) or redesign the homepage of a potential client’s site and then send them redesign idea with your sales pitch included.

cast a wide net
Original image by susiewrites5

It’s important to note: You can’t just run a few ads and expect the business to just pour in. Effective advertising takes time and, above all, constant measurement to be successful. Start small and keep good records of new business that is a direct result from your advertising efforts. This way you can focus your dollars on efforts that pay off and drop advertising with little to no return on investment.

Let the love grow

You’ve heard it before, but it’s so important that it’s worth mentioning again: Teaching the world what you know is a tremendously powerful method of establishing credibility and bringing in new clients. If you’ve established your business as the expert in a given niche of design or development you’ve, more than likely, built an incredible store of very specific knowledge and experience. While it would seem to make good sense to keep that information to yourself (in order to preserve your competitive advantage) the opposite is actually true.

cast a wide net
Original image by Jeff Gardner6

Write guest posts on influential blogs, post frequently to your own blog, make sure you’re helping as many other designers or developers that you can. Every new place you can get your name and your information only helps to spread your brand and solidify your status as an expert. And contrary to belittling your competitive advantage (remember, competitive advantage is a multi-headed monster and it takes more than just your knowledge to take your place in the market), it fortifies your position in the market as the most knowledgeable and skilled practitioner in your field.

Need an example? Think about the chefs of high end restaurants: Why do you think they are so happy to write cook books full of their most prized recipes? I’m sure the big royalty checks help, but it’s because they know it takes more than the ingredient list to make a beautiful and delicious dish, and that those cookbooks are helping thousands of people cook better food for themselves, which only serves to build their positive brand equity and name recognition.

Charge More

Yup. Simple idea right? You want to earn more? Then charge more. If you have a constant stream of good business, and especially if you have to turn clients away because you are too busy, you should be charging more for your services. Much has been written about the psychological link between perceived quality and price7 and this idea was covered extensively in my last article8 here on Smashing Magazine about pricing, but pricing can be a great way to control the amount of work you have on your schedule.

Working too many hours? Raise your prices and you’ll cull some of the price conscious clients off the bottom. Chances are, you’ll be earning the same or more from less hours. A wedding photographer that I know has been steadily raising her prices since about the third client she ever got and it’s only fueled her business. She is now charging at least double what she was originally charging and continues to increase her client-base.

Something to remember about price changes though. If you are going to raise your prices, give fair warning to your current and possible future clients with an announcement on your blog about the price hike. Being honest and forthcoming about what your prices will be and why you are becoming more expensive will generally quell any opposition from clients about the higher price tag on your services.

Hopefully I’ve given some hope to those newbie freelancers out there and some encouragement to those sitting on the earnings plateau. And I hope that everyone has taken away the idea that, more than any other single concept, the idea of Brand Equity should be the paramount concern in any marketing effort you decide to follow!

Interested in more freelancing articles on SM?

Further Resources

Footnotes

  1. 1 http://kiva.org
  2. 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Madoff
  3. 3 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/10/09/strategies-for-successful-client-relations/
  4. 4 http://www.flickr.com/photos/darynbarry/2678410544/
  5. 5 http://www.flickr.com/photos/susiewrites/264370908/
  6. 6 http://jgardnerphoto.com
  7. 7 http://books.google.com/books?id=--M82lcLDxoC&pg=PA40&lpg=PA40&dq=psychological+link+between+price+and+quality&source=bl&ots=oahzFchPux&sig=pZmwEqsyOIAU0R6XaBUGiWiPOr0&hl=en&ei=zf6GSo6oGY7eNeDEveYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  8. 8 http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/07/14/quality-price-ratio-in-web-design-pricing-design-work/
  9. 9 http://answers.polldaddy.com/poll/1913109/
  10. 10 http://www.polldaddy.com
  11. 11 http://freelanceswitch.com/the-business-of-freelancing/the-top-5-powerhouse-marketing-secrets-for-freelancers/
  12. 12 http://www.fuelyourcreativity.com/10-useful-marketing-tools-for-freelancers/
  13. 13 http://vandelaydesign.com/blog/marketing/marketing-freelancer/
  14. 14 http://www.badlanguage.net/27-proven-freelance-marketing-tips

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Jeff Gardner is a business nerd. He loves spreadsheets, graphs and helping companies figure out how to perform better. He also enjoys writing, photography and being outside. You can check him out at his blog.

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  1. 1

    It is so great that you guys have been doing so many freelancer articles. It is hard out there, and the clarity this little post brings will help a lot of younger freelancers.

    keep it going SM!

  2. 2

    Nice article!

  3. 3

    Even though most things here are things you should know when you’ve got common sense and are good at marketing this is still a really helpfull article to remember myself about all those things.

  4. 4

    Much appreciated, good advice.

  5. 5

    Definitely hoping for a print design based book to compliment your web design based book :D

  6. 6

    lol@old wives tale about a wedding photographer

    it never gets old

  7. 7

    This is good information. Freelance work is some thing I’ve looked into once or twice.

  8. 8

    I just moved my freelance web design business to a small town and am starting to locally advertise.

    Imagine my surprise when the photo you picked under “Be Local, Buy Local” is of the same small town of Nevada City, California.

    I love Smashing Magazine!
    Cheers,
    —————————–Tai Travis—————————

  9. 9

    This article is perfect for me right now! Thank you!

    M

  10. 10

    Nice article!

  11. 11

    This is a very well written article. I like the content especially the parts about raising your prices, only once you’re getting too busy. Starting locally is also a key.

    I have started and operated successfully a number of small business with Venture Capital and I wholeheartedly agree with what you have said. Having recently started out on my own freelancing mission to save the world I have been learning and implementing what you have said. One of the best ways I have found to sell is not to actually sell as such, you of course have to close a sale, but to instead focus on educating. Educating works around my aversion to sales and comes in under the radar of conscious awareness and seems to work better for me.

    Thanks again for your article. If you want to know about me you can see my site at Dag Design & Development

  12. 12

    Check Seth Godin’s website for a lot of marketing tips.
    Blog of Seth Godin

    I’m not completely sure to say “Marketing is a brand game”…you don’t have to be a brand, or go branding to do marketing. However, it’s nice to play with it.

    There’s a lot to do in marketing as designer. Marketing also helps you design better.

    I think “Creative Marketing” might be a good aim for Smashing Magazine.

  13. 13

    Great post guys!

  14. 14

    nice… will read this later..im in the office..hehe

  15. 15

    nice post! im considering to go for freelance, but i really confused, how does it work actually? (step-by-step process from giving quotation, invoice, down payment, until final step), cos u know, being a full-time designer u wont handle those administration things and we as a rookie freelance might b confused… so maybe you can assist us in your another article. damn, i really love smashing magazine!

  16. 16

    Nice article.
    Very nice climbing pics

  17. 17

    thanks.. too tired of dealing with clients who dont know what they want, it ends up wasting my time and i always want to run away before the projects can be done.
    Waiting for some articles about dealing with those !!

  18. 18

    Great article, thanks.

  19. 19

    like the part about making people know why they have to pay so and so for ur service… thanks for d tip.

  20. 20

    I agree, that good information. It also pays to know where to go when looking for freelance work, and all the options that are available.

  21. 21

    I also want to become a part-time freelancer within the next 6 months and all this articles in SM are so helpful for me to make the right desicions!! THANK YOU

  22. 22

    For someone novice in the line of freelancing but with credible output, this article does show which direction to heed.

  23. 23

    Interesting Post. I will make use of it!

  24. 24

    “You can’t build a brand by working for everyone doing whatever project they happen to have.” – Very well put. I’ve been there and done that, now enjoying the narrower client focus. Great article!

  25. 25

    woooh See the vote block – people choice

  26. 26

    SM is all you need

  27. 27

    I think that some of the designers with strongest brand awareness are the ones that have one look/style. In a way its a catch 22. A person gains strong brand equity but has to stick to that one successful look.

  28. 28

    Excellent article. I would suggest that ONE elevator speech won’t cut it. You need the core message but should tailor the W.I.I.F.M. so you make a connection with your prospective client.

  29. 29

    Great article, Im just starting as freelance and marketing topics / tips are very useful.

    Thanks!

  30. 30

    Wow, Thanks for all the nice comments guys! I’m glad that so many of you are getting some nuggets of wisdom out of the article!

  31. 31

    Great article. I’m in the computer networking business and this inspired me to go after the local businesses in my area. Wish me luck!

  32. 32

    The first picture, the street scene: I thought, that looks like the main street in Osoyoos BC; digging further I find out it’s Nevada City, CA.

    Here’s a picture from Osoyoos: not the same perspective, but you can see a resemblance:

    http://www.gonorthwest.com/BC/okanagan/osoyoos/images/Osoyoos_097_97.jpg

  33. 33

    great article!!!

  34. 34

    really good!

  35. 35

    I love nachos!

  36. 36

    This is a terrible article full of idealistic vapor. If freelancers studied every business of each prospective client, they would waste a considerable amount of time before approaching the business only to discover that the business owner is in europe until the end of the year.

    DONT freelance. Craft your skill and find a job with a design company, marketing agency, w/e until you learn the skills you need to run a business that you didn’t learn while becoming an artist. THEN, put away enough money to start a business on your own THE RIGHT WAY (marketing & Advertising strategies) that will bring you clients who are not only interested in your services, but are also EXPECTING to spend the money to actually PAY YOU WHAT YOU DESERVE.

    Underskilled freelancers that are out there ripping off companies with amateur work are HURTING the market for PROFESSIONALS who have to control the damage being caused.

    SM: Quit wasting everyone’s time by hiring writers to pad your SEO terms with pointless articles like this one.

    /Jeff

  37. 37

    I agree with Jenny. After this last one, I am refusing to take on something that I, myself would be interested in in general (as a freelancer or even a customer). I’m just sick of working with clueless people who end up wasting precious time with their indecisiveness and resistance to accept that I know what I’m doing and they don’t.

  38. 38

    Fantastic article! Read it thoroughly, really interesting and I need to apply some of it to my business.

  39. 39

    This is just the article I needed, thanks a lot. Especially the idea of specializing on people/resources you already have and making that the core client base of your business seems pretty important.

  40. 40

    Love the concept of increasing your prices and perceived quality, took me ages to accept this but it is totally true. If you offer a great service you should charge a price that reflects the hard work, thought and care you put into your clients projects.

  41. 41

    useful! tnx!

  42. 42

    I agree, that good information. It also pays to know where to go when looking for freelance work, and all the “options that are available.

  43. 43

    Nice article. Another challenge is the getting paid part. Often when working for large corporation it is not uncommon to wait 6 months for an invoice to go through. Keeping track and planning ahead and forging relationships with those who work with you is important.

  44. 44

    As a new business I have to say: awesome article! Normally I wouldn’t post a reply, but I specifically wanted to compliment you! Keep it up!

  45. 45

    Good article. Finding efficient and affordable ways to market your business is a challange for freelancers.

  46. 46

    I’m just embarking on my journey as a freelancer and found the advice in this article very comforting and informative.

    Thanks for the support and for letting the love grow!

  47. 47

    nice article. The “how to find clients?” is one i get a lot. I feel kinda jerky when i tell people that I have never cold called anyone, so far ive been really lucky having good word of mouth marketing and a lot of my clients simply find me from a Google search — which has seriously become todays phone book! No one flips to the yellow pages, they just search for what they need.

  48. 48

    Two crucial points relating to this post. You should absolutely never accept work you feel uncomfortable about from the outset. Too many times freelancers fall into this trap. I have. You have. We all have, will, and do. But it’s counterproductive and releases any valuable brand equity you’ve built up.

    I’d say your elevator pitch should be much shorter than the quoted 1.5 to 2 minutes. 30 seconds should do it, tops. And even then you’ve probably lost your audience by a good 10 seconds. An elevator pitch should – at best – fit in the strapline underneath your web logo.

    Awesome feature!

  49. 49

    Long article but definitely wirth reading. Being a freelancer I wish a had read it before I switched to freelancing. One more thing I’d like to add that clients almost always demand that you refuse any copywright claims to the materials you created for them. But actually this is you who created these materials….
    In some cases a freelancer can choose to turn to a lawyer like this copyright Ukraine

  50. 50

    it’s very usefull

  51. 51

    very nice post! Waitin for the smashing book

  52. 52

    great article, very informative.

    I would love to see more articles like this one in the blog. They really help me remember the basics and re-think things that I have forgotten over time, about running a freelance business.

    Thank you.

  53. 53

    I haven’t yet dipped my toes in the freelance pool yet, but I plan to in the near future. This article was very informative but also concise (that’s two for two). Thank you for this.

  54. 54

    As a freelancer I actually have a business plan. It’s 12 pages long and covers marketing, my short and long-term goals and has a plan on how to get clients. Even though I am the only one to ever see it, it’s a plan nonetheless and i am trying to stick to it.

  55. 55

    Been in freelance for over 8 years now… And still learned alot of things on this article. More Power to SM!!!

  56. 56

    Jackson at 906graphics

    August 29, 2009 11:21 am

    Great article. Not only have a friend and I just started doing freelance design work, but I also work full-time at a media publication and just this week wrote a story on business networking.

    The point above about “Buy Local, Be Local” is a very good one. Let me take it one step further: You have to network. Get involved with the local Chamber of Commerce or look around at other networking groups in your area.

    I learned three important things from my interviews for this story, and I’d like to share them with you:

    1. People might not want to do business with “XYZ Design Studio,” but they’ll gladly do business with and refer business to “John Doe, who is a graphic designer.” (Just insert your name in place of John Doe).
    2. Don’t go into networking with the intention of selling your business. Go with the intention of learning about other businesses and helping other business owners grow their business. You develop trust and credibility, and you build relationships that will end up in referrals for you.
    3. It’s not WHO you know. It’s who knows you.

    Hope this makes sense and helps someone.

    Thanks,
    Josh

  57. 57

    Jackson at 906graphics

    August 29, 2009 11:27 am

    Let me add one more thing: I was amazed at the number of individuals who say that because they do so much networking, they no longer advertise (or have drastically cut back).

    For instance, one source ran a half-page, premium-position ad for her company in a well-known local magazine for a year. She also began networking in a local group. Here’s how that year went:

    Referrals from networking: 15 or so
    Referrals from magazine ad (and a couple other traditional ad mediums): 1

    Food for thought when you have to balance the cost of growing your business with the costly expense of advertising.

  58. 58

    Charge more is my favorite tip. :)

  59. 59

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  60. 60

    Internetagentur toolboks

    October 16, 2009 7:00 am

    super interessant!
    Aber ich finde, jeder sollte seinen eigenen Stil herausfinden, selbstverständlich unter Wahrung der einfachsten betriebswirtschafltlichen Grundanforderungen, die da sind: gebe Geld erst aus, wenn Du es hast !!!

  61. 61

    This article is also perfect for me, im working freelance in the Dominican Republic and another factor I run into is the lack of advertising culture, clients dont understand what this is about, but once you walk into their office or shop and talk to them face to face your confidence shows and they normally accept whatever it is you want to sell them, and if it works expect the friends within a week or so.

  62. 62

    I sort of found your site by mistake, but your website caught my eye and that i thought that I might post to let you know that I like it.

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