The Path To Advertising Nirvana

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With advertising, a curious thing happens: most people want its benefits but are rarely willing to put up with its hassles. Those who run websites and applications have enough on their plates without having to worry about handling transactions, putting banners across their website or hearing requests from advertisers. Moreover, users have little to no interest in even looking at advertisements that flank a website’s content, some going so far as to block ads before they’re delivered. So, what’s a website owner to do?

Advertising hasn’t always been this way. Some people even enjoy them. Scary thought, I know, but stay with me. You know those previews shown before movies and those signs outside of gas stations announcing fuel prices? Those are rarely seen as advertisements at all. That’s because people find them informative, helpful and engaging. Heck, some people say they watch the Superbowl for the advertisements themselves. So why are websites any different? What has changed online that people (apparently) find less acceptable than offline? Not much, really… well, not much unless you count that whole “Internet” thing.

As a general rule, when people surf the Web, they’re in control of the experience. If someone wants information about a particular topic, they might query Google or look up an article on Wikipedia. Regardless of what they do, they choose how to obtain the information they want. The traditional advertising model — shout at your audience until it listens (as Groundswell1 would put it) — is diametrically opposed to this.

So, if advertisers are working against the model, can’t they just leave us alone? The answer is almost universally no; not until we come up with a better solution. Just as user experience designers carefully craft experiences throughout a website, advertisers must pay attention to how they affect the perceived value of the publications in which they appear.

The subject of “advertising experience” itself is too broad to cover in one article, so I wouldn’t suggest that this is final word on it. Instead, I’ll attempt to provide an overview of how our website, the UX Booth (a user experience design publication), has approached advertising in the past 18 months, an approach that has been evolving with our understanding of the advertising model.

First Things First: Why?

A good question to ask yourself when first considering whether to put advertisements on your blog or website is, why are you advertising in the first place? Some of the major reasons that we’ve heard of (at meet-ups, conferences and from other publishers) follow.

1. Quality Content Costs Money.

The most common argument. When a website owner creates and manages content, they’re providing a service; and they have to spend time continually maintaining it. No surprise then that they want to be compensated for that time. Unless the owner is marketing a salable product, this almost inevitably leads them to consider advertising as their chief source of revenue. Erin Kissane recently reflected on this2, the content conundrum, after taking part in SXSW’s publishing panel:

Content isn’t free. If it’s good, it’s very expensive to make. We can subsidize its production and maintenance in any number of ways, but we have to start being honest — with ourselves, our clients and sometimes our readers — about its true cost.… Publishing requires resources: planning, big doses of both creativity and disciplined analysis, writing, editing, design, project management, production, ad sales and so on. It doesn’t usually require a separate person for each of those tasks, but it still tends to be a lot of work — more than most readers and clients tend to imagine.

Jeffrey Zeldman3, who manages Happy Cog, the consultancy that publishes A List Apart4, corroborates this in his post “Content Wants to Be Paid For5.”

2. Advertising Builds Credibility.

This point isn’t as straightforward, so let me explain. People like the familiar, and ads are certainly familiar. Not only can the mere presence of ads build trust (as ironic as that may be), the companies that do the advertising can lend credibility to the website. Consider a website that is sponsored by Adobe and that puts Adobe’s logo next to some of its content. The presence of this established brand sends two distinct yet related messages: first, this content is supported by money from Adobe (and all the good or evil that that entails), and secondly (perhaps more importantly), Adobe essentially endorses this website’s content. Having a major brand as a partner gives the website authority.


Although Delve:UI was Fritz Desir’s first event, the support of so many well-known sponsors lent it credibility.

3. Advertising Supports the Community.

Websites aren’t run in a vacuum. They exist in an eco-system, a niche. Relevant advertising beside content can introduce readers to products and services that are of interest to them. If similarly targeted websites follow the same logic, the community as a whole is strengthened. Remember webrings6? (… No?)

Whatever your reasons, understand first why you’re advertising. This understanding will inform future decisions that you make throughout the advertising process.

Second Things Second: Who?

Now that you’ve decided that advertising is for you, it’s time to meet the individuals who are a part of the advertising equation. Unlike traditional user–centered design, which involves a complex interplay between two parties (stakeholders and users), advertising is a three-way conversation: between stakeholders, readers and advertisers.

Advertisers

Know them, love them, cherish them. Advertisers are the people who want to show their products to the people who visit your website. To do this, they start at the top, contacting publications that interest their target demographic.


In lieu of a dedicated sales team, UX Booth gives advertisers a sponsorship page as well as a single point of contact on staff.

Anyone interested in advertising on your website will thus need a way to get in touch with you. While you might have a general contact form, does that page contain details about your advertising opportunities? If not, consider making the process easier for interested companies by creating a dedicated page. This is the solution7 we ended up going with.

If creating an “Advertise with us” page sounds like too much work, consider using a service like BuySellAds.com8. BuySellAds.com does something equally effective, putting your website in an advertising database. Advertisers that are interested in buying a spot can quickly compare their options across various websites and make an informed choice in just a few clicks.


Using BuySellAds.com is a great way to kickstart your blog’s advertising presence.

When a company expresses interest in advertising in your publication, give them a single point of contact with your organization. When it’s time to renew, include a kind note thanking them for their support and asking whether you can adjust anything to improve their stay on your website. A mutually beneficial relationship will emerge over time. Remember that, like readers, advertisers are people, too.

Readers

Because advertising is such a touchy subject for readers, listen to their feedback. If something’s not working and you’re listening closely enough, you’ll know it.

When the UX Booth launched, we attracted advertisers that were used to targeting visual designers. (Note that UX design is commonly mistaken for UI design.) Although this worked well for the first few months, we eventually surmised that readers weren’t engaged with our advertisers’ products. The discussions in our comments section, Twitter stream and Facebook fan page weren’t about PSD-to-HTML services or CSS galleries, so why would we advertise products related to them?


Facebook allows publishers to look at their reader demographics.

If possible, check your Facebook fan page for demographic information. If all else fails, just ask your readers directly. Facebook has seen marked success with its own advertising network because of the context it derives from the profiles and explicit preferences of users. Google, too: it targets advertisements in Gmail based on the contents of email messages.

Okay Then, How?

Once you understand your reasons for advertising and have a basic grasp of the users in your niche, how do you marry the two? Well, with design, of course. But doing this is far from straightforward. Essentially, we’re designing for opposing goals: advertisers want users to give more conscious attention to their products and services, while usability-minded interaction designers want them to give less. (Steve Krug’s popular book is called Don’t Make Me Think for a reason.) Thankfully, UX luminary Karen McGrane9 spells out all of the idiosyncrasies of this space in her (aptly titled) presentation “Designing For, With and Around Advertising10.”

Delivery

As mentioned, the online advertising space is littered with faux pas. What kind? Consider the following behavior:

  • Pop-up ads,
  • Pop-under ads,
  • Overly-busy animated ads,
  • Ads with unsolicited sound.

All of these kinds of advertising have a bad reputation for a reason: they distract readers from what they intended to do. Consider carefully whether the reward of displaying these kinds of ads is worth the negative impact it could have on the user experience.

If you do allow animated attention–seeking creatives, then set clear boundaries. Give advertisers a media kit that ensures that everyone agrees on what kinds of advertisements are acceptable and what kinds are not. For example, for ads that hover over the page, what are the requirements on how long they can appear and how users can close them?

The state of online ad delivery methods leaves much to be desired. The only universally well-received options are static text-based ads and static banner advertisements. Banner ads are good because they’re usually discrete, but they’re also bad because readers usually ignore them. This well-documented phenomenon is known as banner blindness11. Web usability professional Jakob Neilsen confirms that “Users almost never look at anything that looks like an advertisement.”

So with “loud” advertising out, and banner blindness being so prevalent, how can we make this work? Perhaps not the way you would expect. Simply placing more ads around your website won’t solve it, as Paul Scrivens recently reminded us12. We’ve got to try something new.


While sidebar banners are the most popular form of advertisement, they’re arguably the least noticed.

Engagement: A Sliver Of Hope

To bring readers back into the conversation, we have to figure out two things: what they interact with and why they do it. The answer to the first question is pretty obvious for a blog with a steady readership: readers interact with the articles; they read them. So, what does this mean for advertising? Should blogs “publish” ads, too? Perhaps. Consider the unique approach taken with the location-based game Gowalla.

And Now for Something Completely Different…

Gowalla is a game that allows players to “check in” at various locations. Checking in is an abstract concept that involves “stamping” your passport and adding an item to your “backpack.” Most items collected in Gowalla are useless: teddy bears, lattes, tour buses. Recently, though, Gowalla added a unique kind of item to the system. Thanks to a partnership13 with Apple and Apple-accessory manufacturer InCase, players can now pick up special Incase items (and coupons) when they check into an Apple Store location. Checking in becomes much more valuable and exciting in an Apple Store because players might win something. The net effect? Because of the clever delivery mechanism, what might otherwise be seen as blatant advertising becomes a fun, engaging game element.


Gowalla introduced in–game advertising in a unique way.

We learn from Gowalla’s approach to advertising that, rather than deliver ad content in a boring, predictable format, everyone wins when the solution is altogether unique. Am I suggesting that each website implement a unique system for delivering ads? Of course not. Custom solutions like Gowalla’s require far more infrastructure and development time than many publications can afford. What I am suggesting is that by taking a slightly different approach to advertising, we can change our audience’s perception (and reception) of advertising entirely.

At UX Booth, for example, instead of displaying a banner ad for a relatively unknown product, we might choose to introduce that product to our readers by way of a blog article. If we think it’s of sufficient interest, we’ll conduct an interview with a potential sponsor to find out how they develop their user experience (which is the subject of our blog). Because these kinds of articles are what UX Booth is all about, everyone wins. Participants view these discussions as being inherently valuable precisely because of their participation. Rein Henrichs echos this sentiment in his article “Conversation Is King14.”

Attaining Advertising Nirvana

Now that we’ve covered some of the nuances of advertising, what’s the best way to proceed? Unfortunately for you, after an article as long as this one, I hate to say that “it depends.” The best advertising model for any website is always the one that balances the team’s business objectives with the objectives of advertisers and of readers. In the case of UX Booth, we like to think that we know our audience pretty well, but we’re certainly aware that none of our solutions are perfect. But what I want to know is, how could they be? What would you do in our position?

I’m aware, for example, that inviting would-be advertisers to write blog posts is an extraordinarily fine line to walk; but it’s a path I’m willing to explore. A publication’s credibility comes down to the discretion of its editors. This is my decision to make. It’s up to readers, then, to decide whether or not my decision is a correct one, providing content that they enjoy. Do posts on UX Booth written by product owners come off as information pieces or infomercials? I can’t say. Obviously, I prefer the former to the latter, but the decision isn’t made in a vacuum — I must balance my desire to provide relevant content with my ability to justify (to myself and others) the time we spend maintaining site.

A publisher’s job is to match readers to content they will enjoy (or to interactions they will enjoy, in GoWalla’s case). Our community is capable of caring about content, which is why they show up in the first place. What we need to do is show them why they should care about related content. But wait! Doesn’t introducing people to things they might enjoy sound like marketing? Well, yes… Yes it does.

In this new open-source/cluetrain world, I am a marketer. And so are you. If you’re interested in creating passionate users, or keeping your job, or breathing life into a start-up, or getting others to contribute to your open-source project, or getting your significant other to agree to the vacation you want to go on… congratulations. You’re in marketing. Now go kill yourself.

Kathy Sierra15

Even if, upon reflection, we realize that we’re doing the work of marketers, one thing is apparent: the digital advertising industry is mature enough for newcomers to quickly suss out its worst practices… which isn’t a good thing either. The question going forward is, what’s the best way to make marketing more or less invisible? — more like those movie previews we talked about. We need advertising that doesn’t frustrate us. Figure that out, and you’re well on your way to helping us all attain advertising nirvana.

Further Reading

(al)

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Andrew Maier designs interactions and user experiences for a variety of clients having formerly worked with Hashrocket, a world-class web application consultancy. He writes, speaks, and teaches about design and its intersection with the internet. In addition he serves as the editor–in–chief of the user experience blog, UX Booth. When he's not crazy busy, Andrew likes singing, practicing yoga and drinking coffee. You should follow him on twitter, here.

  1. 1

    Technical comment – viewing the mobile version of this site on iPhone, when following the Read More link (or article heading), the link takes you to the comments page, and you can’t view the rest of the article.

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    • 2

      same thing on my nokia5800

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    • 6

      I have the same problem… It’s the only way for me to read articles through my iPhone so I’m really disappointed…

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      • 7

        Same for us. Click Read More and just see comments. Like it for sometime. Assumed it was something wrong with our iPhones.

        EDIT: just found the full site link in the footer. All is well.

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  2. 8

    Well, very interesting…
    Good read!
    As a flash developer working mainly for the advertising industry, I have to agree with your points…

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  3. 9

    Good article :) .

    Want to know on thing is it okay to click some advert on blog/web magazines to help them ? even you dont want/wish to know more about that product [advertise ]. I often click some banner max 1 or 2 to help that article.

    Thanks

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  4. 10

    Vicky Nimbalkar

    April 13, 2010 2:13 am

    Very Good Article.

    vicky nimbalkar

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  5. 11

    Building advertising into your design, or even business model, does not have to be annoying. Thanks for the encouragement.

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  6. 12

    Nice very nice —— Thanks very much for sharing.

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  7. 13

    Janna Mock-Lopez

    April 13, 2010 3:55 am

    thanks for an informative article; it’s appreciated.

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  8. 14

    Cool article Andrew. You might be interested in a recent article I wrote regarding ad earnings from some well-known design blogs – fits in nicely with what you’ve said here about Buy Sell Ads. Here’s the link if you care for a read: http://www.freelancereview.net/ad-earnings-of-top-design-blogs/

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  9. 15

    great post…

    one thing i would add, that i find is rarely discussed when it comes to advertising an online community/blog etc., is the offline presence!

    From experience, I find that meeting people face to face is essential. I try to make it out to as many festivals, conferences, meetups, |I attend and run workshops, and present whenever I can to help spread the word. After every event I attend I find I always pick up more followers, friends, clients, and traffic…

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    • 16

      excellent point, meeting people face to face can only help them see the passion you have for what you’re doing.

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  10. 17

    good breakdown! i liked the article and i’ll try to apply some of those principles in the future.

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  11. 18

    Thank you very much for this well thought out and balanced article. I’m a big fan of the blog article as advertising… and, of course, if you can integrate them, affiliate links are a value-add revenue stream too.

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    • 19

      done tastefully and in moderation, affiliate links are OK. done the wrong way, affiliate links can only damage the perception of your site.

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  12. 20

    Informative blog articles are my favourite form of advertising. They also help to build authority the same way as sponsors logos. I think it is also important to integrate such activities into your overall marketing strategy as well so that you can monitor ROI against more overt advertising e.g. banner ads etc.

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  13. 21

    Relevance.
    Some of SM’s advertisers fit the content, so I’m actually curious about them.

    I probably clicked on more banners here and on similar sites than at Yahoo.

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  14. 22

    Interesting post. Another well written article.

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  15. 23

    Interesting article. I’d never heard of Gowalla before, very interesting concept.

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  16. 24

    Andrew, thank you for another excellent read provided by Smashing Magazines.

    One question: Can you or anyone provide some examples of websites using poor to great advertising techniques (ie. nytimes.com, newyorker.com, smashingmagazine.com, etc)?

    Gowalla.com has a great setup working for them, however, getting people to click on an ad in a website, unless by accident, seems almost unlikely. I know for me I avoid almost all advertisements and the floating one that SM has recently posted is annoying. I realize it is important for them though to keep cash flow covering all the expenses.

    A big draw for me is site that uses plea’s (to stay free) or charity, like when SM asked everyone to buy the online version of their book. I did!

    One site I think does a great job advertising their own products is Adobe. Working that into a blog or news related site seems a little unrealistic though.

    Look forward to hearing responses!

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    • 25

      don’t be too quick to assume that nobody clicks on ads or that they view them the same way you do. the ads here on smashing are very relevant – all legit companies with (arguably) solid products/services.

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  17. 26

    So there’s an ad up top for the book that I purchased, and there’s one down the bottom. There’s a single add floating to the left above the content, which breaks my reading flow. It’s also a duplicate of one of the adverts in the sidebar.

    And then to top it all off, a pop up ad appears, and starts scrolling with my text. Good times.

    Now don’t get me wrong, I appreciate Smashing Magazine, and it’s a great website – and this is a good article. However, I find it just a little ironic that an article on advertising – especially one that makes a point to mention that most users hate advertising – has several of those very ads in it.

    The other thing is the quality of the advertisements. I don’t know about anyone else, but when I see an advert for multiple PSD > HTML services on the same page, it seems to detract from the value of them. As the article itself says, ‘Simply placing more ads around your website won’t solve it’ – so instead of showing me a website with 9 or 10 advertisements that I will absolutely never click on, why not show me one or two truly awesome ads for super products that I haven’t seen anywhere else?

    Is it possible that a higher refresh rate of advertisements, with less duplication and a wider array of advertising services would help in avoiding people to skip over them? When I see a new advertisement, I’ll read it at least once – but that’s it. I’ll commit the color and shape to memory and block it out mentally if it’s not immediately useful. Yet if I come back later in the day or tomorrow and there’s a different color or shape in that spot … well I’m going to read it again.

    To reiterate, I’m not complaining about adverts, I understand they’re 100% necessary, but I don’t think it would hurt advertisers (as a whole) to put a little more effort into them. And no, effort doesn’t mean a fancy flash video that takes over my browser window when I roll over it.

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    • 27

      interesting point Dave. i think that one of the hardest things to do when selling ads on a site is to figure out how to keep the number of ads to a minimum, while still charging appropriately for the space and making enough money to sustain the site. often times, i think what you will see is that people just keep adding new ad units to a site to make more money. Doing things the other way (increasing your prices on existing advertisers and keeping the number of ads to a minimum) is a hard thing to do for the majority of site owners. networks like theDeck do this very well (one ad per page), but they are the exception, not the rule. that being said, i think the most important thing a blogger can do for their site is to just make sure that the ads are relevant – regardless of how many there are.

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  18. 28

    Interesting read, thank you!

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  19. 29

    Thanks for the feedback thus far, everyone.

    Chris M., regarding advertising rate: I think the conversation must be had, especially in a “down” economy. Although I didn’t specifically address rates, they definitely have a a causal relation on the quality of the overall experience. For example, it’s hard to say that the articles on PSD Tuts completely trump the articles found on a site such as Tutorial9.net; but the former can certainly afford to pay for higher–quality authors. At some point. it’s about “the hustle,” (as Gary V. says) those who can sell advertisers on higher–paid positions will get more money and the benefits that those deals entail.

    Dave, regarding creative advertising: This is exactly the kind of thinking that I hope my article encourages. Rachel Nabors mentioned last night during our weekly UX Booth meeting that humorous advertisements––such as Prairie Home Companion’s Powdermilk Biscuits––are engaging, meaning listeners will anticipate them. At that rate, they’re far more likely to listen when the show actually *is* sponsored by someone real.

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  20. 30

    11:30pm here in Toronto and I clicked on the link from Twitter on my iPhone and went right to comments…no article.

    Cheers,
    mike.

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  21. 31

    Well, very interesting…
    Some of SM’s advertisers fit the content, so I’m actually curious about them.

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  22. 32

    Good points all well made! DubLi has a pretty innovative viral marketing advertising strategy which I believe is going to be one of the mainstream ways of advertising in the future.

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  23. 33

    Great article!

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  24. 34

    You can also get real detailed audience information from sites like Google AdPlanner. Check out this for Smashing Magazine:

    https://www.google.com/adplanner/planning/site_profile#siteDetails?identifier=smashingmagazine.com&geo=001&trait_type=1&lp=true

    It’ll really help you hone in on who your audience is and help you in your pitch to advertisers.

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  25. 35

    Interesting to read about a methodical approach to desiging for ads, and I liked the idea that advertising goes beyond a graphic and slogan.

    The line between editorial and advertising has been crossed online, I think: You’ll find various “opinion” pieces by organisations and companies on newspaper websites. But they’re often tucked away on microsites — I’m not sure of their value to readers. In newspapers editorial and advertising have to be kept entirely separate in order to retain credibility.

    I work for a member organisation and I’m keen to get members writing about their company experiences, expertise etc. on our blog. I wouldn’t allow them to just state how great they or their products are, but it’d be naive to think they’re not getting something from it. They don’t pay for the privelege, though: That changes the relationship between publisher and reader.

    Also, you’re relying on an advertiser to writes posts that are clearly not just advertorial. That may be possible in the UX world where your author will know what Nielsen says about ads and traditional, advertising–style copy, but you’d have a lot of problems with your average marketing department.

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  26. 36

    A note on ad blocking – it’s not just annoying flash and the like that make people hate online ads. Advertising companies have a long history (at least in terms of the age of the Internet) of not playing fair with consumers – things like individual history tracking, the force downloading of malicious content, I’d venture that these are the main reasons for much of the ad blocking. Take a look at any reputable malware database and you will see a plethora of examples of these and other downright dishonest advertising behavior. It’s these types of companies that ruin things for legitimate advertisers and are cause for many a network administrator (and anti-malware tool) to keep ads away from users, many of whom may not even have a choice in the matter. Things do seem to have improved somewhat, but these facts are still very relevant.

    For what it’s worth, I have no problem with ads as long as it’s simple images, SIMPLE unobtrusive flash or (for example) upselling on a cart/checkout page, but for me pop-ups/pop-unders and ads that interrupt my viewing of the web page are just out of the question.

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    • 37

      joe, very valid point about people hating ads not just because of the ad content, but because people have been burned or mislead in the past. I run BuySellAds.com and one of the hardest things we deal with is helping people understand that we’re not like traditional ad networks. We don’t sell “remnant” inventory and we don’t allow 3rd party ad tags (the main sources of malware & crappy ads). What publishers need to fully understand is that putting ANY 3rd party JavaScript on your site opens up vulnerability, and allows ad networks to basically put whatever they want on your site. It is important that publishers work with ad networks that they trust for this very reason. Even if you look at some of the most reputable brand names out there (like very large media companies… *cough cough* fox *cough cough*, for example) you will see that they sell plenty of remnant inventory and have some of the crappiest ads out there.

      Letting profit drive the decions you make while owning an ad network is dangerous – that’s why you see a lof of the spam and malware that gets into the mix from reputable ad networks.

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  27. 38

    perfect. we’re starting sponsored articles at our site instead of going for web banners, but makes sense both ways. thanks for the post. :)

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  28. 39

    shemir vt vellamunda

    April 15, 2010 2:38 am

    Really helpful to get a methodical approach to designs & other works
    is there any chance to get samples through mail? shemir-wayanad India Kerala
    Vellamunda

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  29. 40

    Putting lots of advertisement on blog, slows down it…Basically Javascript/iframe based ads. But, image based ads with link back is good to continue…

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  30. 41

    What’s the name of the typeface in orange (“Advertising”) in the UX booth screen shot?
    Love it! :)

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