Designing For Digital Products

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In digital culture, we are beginning to think of our output as products and of our clients as users. “Products” might be websites, apps or communities, and they might be created by startups, agencies or a couple of people at a hackathon. This shift mainly means that we have gotten serious about asking how to better serve users, which reflects a significant change in the designer’s skill set.

Designers will use the same tools they have always used, but they are now responsible for more than just the interface. Conducting usability studies, planning design strategically over the course of a product’s lifespan, facilitating communication and — above all — “shipping” are frequent requests. Whether or not a designer calls him or herself a product designer is beside the point; to remain relevant, they need to master these new user-centered values and processes.

Forget The Job Title

Designers have in the past distinguished themselves by job title, but existing titles have become inaccurate. Job expectations are no longer confined to singular tasks. Labels like user experience designer, user interface designer, interaction designer, product designer and so on may describe a person’s interests better than another, but most designers do a little of all of this, as “hybrids” (be it designer and coder, user experience and user interface designer, or designer and entrepreneur).

This trend is clearly reflected in the variety of open jobs posted. No one knows exactly who they’re looking for, so they pick the label that sounds best. Here are a few examples from the Smashing Job Board1 and Dribbble2:

Cat Lover Job Posting on Dribbble3
Wordpress Happiness Engineer Job Posting4
SupercalifragilisticIxDadocious Interaction Designer Job Posting5
Hiring companies are choosing creative descriptions to draw attention to their posts.

On the flip side, people who do the hiring understand that anyone can choose a title they like the sound of and slap that on their portfolio or business card, and that doesn’t change a designer’s level of experience or resourcefulness. The new product design world, on the other hand, is about being effective as a designer, a task rooted in real products and real people (think living portfolios and networks of people). Authenticity is getting harder to manufacture.

In high-profile opportunities, designers are expected to know UX, UI, front-end code, even how to write strategic business plans. Let’s look at a few of the requirements from a product designer job6 listing on Evernote7 (emphasis mine):

Responsibilities:

  • Be a thoughtful voice for our users. You are constantly thinking about new and improved use cases and features that will appeal to our users.
  • Work in small multidisciplinary product teams to help build products that are beneficial to our company and our users.
  • Develop high level user stories, prototypes, design mockups, specs, and production assets.
  • Define innovative user experiences that result in improved user productivity.
  • Be equally comfortable working the details of your designs at a pixel level.
  • Maintain a high level of visual fidelity across products.
  • Be nimble. You will be working to define requirements while simultaneously designing for those requirements.

Requirements and Skills:

  • Experience designing engaging user experiences for desktop, web, or mobile apps.
  • Proficiency with the common suite of desktop applications used to create the wide variety of materials required to take a solution from concept through code.
  • Ability to think about a problem from multiple angles to come up with the best design.
  • Unique drive to continue pushing products forward and innovating.
  • Proven track-record for shipping high quality experiences.
  • Excellent presentation skills and attention to detail.
  • Articulate and passionate verbal communicator.
  • A strong sense of design theory and typography are critical.
  • Ability to prototype designs in lo-fidelity and hi-fidelity as required.
  • At least 3-5 years of relevant product design experience working on major product releases.
  • A complete portfolio that shows breadth and depth of work.
  • Experience working closely with other designers, product managers and developers.
  • B.S./B.A. in related field or equivalent experience.

Please include your online portfolio on your resume or cover letter for consideration.

Individually, the requirements appear vague, but as a sum total, the message is clear: Design is no longer a “service” so much as it is a core offering in the “idea economy”:

“The service economy is going… going… soon to be gone like its predecessors in the manufacturing/industrial economy and the agricultural economy. […] The primary product of the Idea Economy is ideas. You and I can and must produce ideas just as those who prospered in previous economies had to produce crops, manufactured goods, and most recently, services.”

– Rob Brazell, founder of Overstock.com8 and author of The Idea Economy9

These changes in culture represent a shift in the way we value design. Designers are expected to use whatever resources they have available to build upon and sell good ideas.

It’s never been easier to “sell” design ideas to non-designers. The growing support infrastructure for designers as entrepreneurs over the last few years has had a huge impact on the culture of design, particularly with the creation of The Designer Fund10, a key investor in designer-led startups, and the abundance of role models of successful designer-entrepreneurs11.

Designer Founders12
A plethora of designer-founders are changing the way designers are being perceived.

Having been on the hiring end of product teams, I can confidently say, yes, the portfolio is important. Yes, experience is important. Yes, an intricate mastery of our craft (typography, grids, layout, etc.) will get a designer noticed. But in addition to these skills, you can be sure that employers are looking for big-picture thinking that will directly add value to their team and their product.

Usability Testing

“The real audience were the people out there in the real world who were going to be stuck with whatever it was I was designing. […] The more you can be their advocate, the better the design will be. That’s not just the goal of identity design, but design period.”

– Michael Bierut, in an interview with designboom13

Everyone has intuition or experiences that shape their judgment in interaction design, including developers, product managers and other members of the team. And why shouldn’t they? We are all users, after all. The designer no longer lays claim to be the sole advocate of a user’s experience, and their opinion has become less relevant without evidence to back it up.

I think this has happened for a few good reasons:

  1. User testing has never been more accessible.
  2. Perfectionism is less valued than it used to be.
  3. More people recognize good design as more than a veneer.

Regarding the first point, a plethora of articles (such as those on Design Staff14) have made it impossibly easy to do what used to be the siloed and specialized skills of human factors and user-centered design. It’s often as simple as following a set of instructions15. The up-front cost, given tools like Silverback16 ($70) and options like UserTesting.com17 (from $100 for three participants), can be as minimal as paying a staff member — such as a designer — to write the testing criteria. Moreover, businesses understand that the payoff for conducting a simple study, with even just five participants18, is huge compared to the risk of not talking directly to users early on.

Nielsen's Why You Only Need to Test With Five Users19
Nielsen’s diagram depicts a diminishing amount of useful feedback after testing with just five users. (Image: Jakob Nielsen20)

Paul Graham of Y Combinator talks about early testing in his essay “Do Things That Don’t Scale21”:

“In software, especially, it usually works best to get something in front of users as soon as it has a quantum of utility, and then see what they do with it. Perfectionism is often an excuse for procrastination, and in any case your initial model of users is always inaccurate, even if you’re one of them. The feedback you get from engaging directly with your earliest users will be the best you ever get.”

For designers, a bit of time spent writing surveys and scenarios, creating a testing environment (however simple), making prototypes, interviewing users, gathering data and then analyzing that data are all experiences that will feed directly back into the designs. This is not about being a perfectionist, but rather about nimbly applying appropriate tools to inform good work. Design, as a utilitarian vocation, will thrive on this, and the wider acceptance of user testing in the product world will mark the transition of good design from being a veneer or ethos to being a very real part of the product.

Design For The Minimum Viable Product

Founders often believe that getting users and investments means being in the right place at the right time, which nearly always means now. Designers and developers are expected to keep up with this pace. If a good idea is on the table, they’d better build and release, or else someone else will beat them to the punch.

Minimum Viable Product User Experience Design22
Sketch notes for minimum viable product UX (Image: Dean Meyers | Large view23).

This manic environment can pose a particular kind of hardship24 for designers; we care about the utility of our designs, and we may even see the larger business case for launching early, but we also carry an inherent respect for the subtleties of our craft that create the larger experience and that take time (often a lot of time) to develop.

Timelines, however, rarely shift for perfection, especially in product design (and, really, they don’t need to). Does this mean that designers — if they really care — should work all hours to perfect the interface and experience before the big launch? No.

Designing for the minimum viable product (MVP) means designing with a strategy. It means knowing up front that the website will not be built responsively, but that it should be designed as if it were. It means accepting that the user experience can’t live up to MailChimp’s at first launch, but still designing with that ideal in mind. It means realizing the difference between a minimum viable product and a minimum delightful product25, as well as which works for your target audience.

“You’d never find the magnetic click [from an Apple power cable] on an engineer’s list of MVP features or user stories. It’s really easy in minimal viable products to actually design the delight out of them.”

– Andy Budd, in an interview with Inside Intercom26

A big challenge of MVP design lies in sacrificing your darlings for the benefit of an early release. A bigger challenge lies in knowing where to follow up and prioritize design improvements for the next release. Luckily, user testing should help with this, but a level of intuition — or awareness — is still needed to determine which piece of the puzzle should fall into place next in order to gain a clearer picture.

I like to think of good MVP design as holding on to your dreams and showing up to work every day; having a vision, but also having the practicality to break your vision into small goals27.

Lastly, MVP design doesn’t mean releasing work early to be done with it. It means returning to good but difficult-to-execute ideas that arose in early planning, learning from users, and having the discipline to keep iterating. It means seeing a project through from its messy beginnings to its final finesse.

Communication And Facilitation

Building fast, smart and targeted necessitates a good understanding of different facets of production. Knowing what makes a product tick, the implications of how and why something is being developed in a certain way, and how best to communicate the user’s needs will put the designer in a position to design well. There is no end to the questions designers can ask; any question is relevant.

Now more than ever, design means taking off the headphones and coming out from behind the computer screen in order to talk to people, expose problems and offer solutions. As a team member who tends to see a project holistically, the designer has more opportunities to make connections between people and establish decision points to keep a project on track.

This role shouldn’t be confused with a project or product manager28, because design is still a designer’s main deliverable. However, it is worth noting that the designer who communicates well will take a more central role on the team, and more often than not this is the expectation rather than the exception.

“Design is all about relationships. Unfortunately, many designers don’t fully appreciate this. Some of the best design work I’ve ever done was drinking coffee or beers with engineers, marketing people, and business development hustlers. And I wholeheartedly mean design work.”

– Daniel Burka, in The Pastry Box Project29

Surviving in a digital industry means learning hard skills all the time, but communication will be a valuable soft skill for the entirety of a designer’s career. It’s worth working on.

Getting It Done

Adam Davidson30 of NPR recently published an article titled “What’s an Idea Worth?31” in the New York Times, writing:

“During the past few decades […] global trade and technology have made it all but impossible for any industry to make much profit in mass production of any sort. (Companies like G.E., Nike and Apple learned early on that the real money was in the creative ideas that can transform simple physical products far beyond their generic or commodity value.)”

The emphasis on “transform” is mine, because transformation is a lot like good design: It is active. Good design actively contributes to the execution of an idea.

Davidson goes on to present a compelling argument for nixing the billable hour, explaining that such a payment structure incentivizes long, boring or redundant tasks and reduces professionals to “interchangeable containers of finite, measurable units that could be traded for money.” Granted, he is talking about accountants, but this easily applies to design as well. Are we not more than the time we spend doing something? Is time-spent how we value the success of good design?

busy-building-things-real-artists-ship32
The culture of “shipping” is becoming increasingly important to designers. (Image: Busy Building Things33)

In product design, the answer, of course, is no. However, it is not just the idea that matters either. A product begins with an idea, but it is ultimately evaluated by what is released into the world.

If you are a designer who has ever had to mock up every page of a website just because a client insists, then the reason for this shift becomes clear: It is much better to test work in a living prototype, so that it can be played with, iterated on and further developed.

“At the end of the day, is an iPhone and an Android not the same idea, just executed differently? Execution is what really differentiates products or companies, not ideas.”

– Ross Popoff-Walker, in Ideas Do Not Matter: Here’s Why34

The penultimate value of a product is in the creative execution of the idea. In other words, what have you released lately?

The Real Value Of Design

“The war is over. Design has won a place on the team. We can lay down arms, fuck around in text editors, and stop fighting the battles of yesteryear. If you’re still fighting it at your company, quit and move to SF or NYC. The future is here, and it’s hiring.”

– Joshua Seiden, in “Designers Shouldn’t Code” Is the Wrong Answer to the Right Question35

An army of designers, especially recent graduates, will still work in client services (and will gain valuable experience there), but this shift towards product design has far-reaching implications for all designers and the skills they are expected to contribute when they are hired.

The users, the product and the team are now integral parts of the design brief. Fortunately, it is no longer the value of design that we are fighting to get recognized, but the value of the product, and this means we have more resources at our disposal. Design doesn’t have to do it alone, but designers do need to recognize and learn the processes necessary for success in this new environment.

(al) (il)

Footnotes

  1. 1 http://jobs.smashingmagazine.com/
  2. 2 http://dribbble.com/jobs
  3. 3 http://dribbble.com/jobs
  4. 4 http://jobs.smashingmagazine.com/j/WordPress-Happiness-Engineer/2403100
  5. 5 http://jobs.smashingmagazine.com/j/SupercalifragilisticIxDadocious-Interaction-Designer-see-footnote-/2402866
  6. 6 http://hire.jobvite.com/CompanyJobs/Careers.aspx?nl=1&k=Job&j=ob9rWfwr&s=Dribbble&su=flF9VfwO
  7. 7 http://evernote.com/
  8. 8 http://www.overstock.com
  9. 9 http://theideaeconomy.com/
  10. 10 http://designerfund.com/
  11. 11 http://www.designerfounders.com/
  12. 12 http://www.designerfounders.com/
  13. 13 http://www.designboom.com/design/michael-bierut-interview/
  14. 14 http://www.designstaff.org/
  15. 15 http://www.webcredible.co.uk/user-friendly-resources/web-usability/testing-plan.shtml
  16. 16 http://silverbackapp.com/
  17. 17 http://www.usertesting.com/
  18. 18 http://www.nngroup.com/articles/why-you-only-need-to-test-with-5-users/
  19. 19 http://www.nngroup.com/articles/why-you-only-need-to-test-with-5-users/
  20. 20 http://www.nngroup.com/articles/why-you-only-need-to-test-with-5-users/
  21. 21 http://paulgraham.com/ds.html
  22. 22 http://www.flickr.com/photos/deanmeyers/8642884187
  23. 23 http://www.flickr.com/photos/deanmeyers/8642884187
  24. 24 https://medium.com/worth-to-read/94cebdc85463
  25. 25 http://www.startupblender.com/product-planning/minimum-viable-product-vs-minimum-delightful-product
  26. 26 http://insideintercom.io/an-interview-with-andy-budd/
  27. 27 http://www.forbes.com/sites/lewishowes/2012/07/06/why-thinking-small-is-the-secret-to-big-success/
  28. 28 https://medium.com/what-i-learned-building/63c09a43d0ec
  29. 29 http://the-pastry-box-project.net/daniel-burka/2013-july-21/
  30. 30 http://www.npr.org/people/4646803/adam-davidson
  31. 31 http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/04/magazine/whats-an-idea-worth.html
  32. 32 http://www.busybuildingthings.com/
  33. 33 http://www.busybuildingthings.com/
  34. 34 http://rosspw.com/your-ideas-do-not-matter/
  35. 35 http://joshuaseiden.com/blog/2013/08/designers-shouldnt-code-is-the-wrong-answer-to-the-right-question/

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Cassie McDaniel is the lead UX designer (or whatever) for the Mozilla Webmaker project. Say hi to @cassiemc on Twitter or check out www.cassiemcdaniel.com for design and more words.

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  1. 1

    Regarding the part of this article on user feedback and testing, I’d like to point out the link given for a user a testing service is a more expensive option and might be not be a viable for a web designer and or their client on a tight budget. Furthermore, not all websites need in-depth monitoring and cataloging of user experience issues; sometimes all you need is honest, quick, and straightforward feedback. There are alternative (and affordable) options available out there. I’d like to give a shameless plug to feedbackarmy.com , it’s easy and affordable.

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  2. 2

    Nice article – it’s all about the final product and the value it serves – this means a combination of many disciplines.

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  3. 3

    Dmitriy Fabrikant

    August 23, 2013 12:30 am

    To reconcile Rob Brazell’s quote that we live in an Idea Economy, with Ross Popoff-Walker’s quote that it’s all about the execution – we live in an Execution Economy! – I’m coining the term Ideacution Economy. We live in it.

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  4. 4

    The second I spotted “Rockstar designer” in that job ad. I punched a baby.

    Great article though, I would have to agree with the above comments about some of the solutions not being viable for smaller projects. Just reality.

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  5. 6

    Basically designers need to step out their ’90s Waterfall method. The BDUF (Big Design Up Front) is just a very expensive way to communicate. Iterate and bring the client in on the process.

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  6. 7

    “Authenticity is getting harder to manufacture.”

    That has got to be one of the most ridiculous statements I’ve ever seen or read. Products are manufactured but authenticity is not manufactured. In fact, I’d say the very idea of an assembly line or a manufacturing plant immediately destroys any “authenticity.” This doesn’t mean that manufacturing things is bad it just means that manufacturing and authenticity or originality do not belong in the same sentence.

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  7. 8

    As a graphic designer that works for almost 10 years doing web, it is clear that we can’t act like if why were in print. But it seems you want to leave out of job a lot of people haha.
    Is always a pain in the ass to see how Product Managers, Technical Leaders, Bussines Analyst define the product, and we only have to make it preatty. And most of the times, we only have to make the “vision” of the client happen.
    But, in the other hand, all those task are so boring… read the tech requirements, shoot me in the head, only in the wireframing we start to feel motivated.
    So, the “scientist designer” sounds cool, but must change the way projects are set, and specially, must change designer.
    My english is very bad, sorry.

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    • 9

      “Graphic Design” died a long time ago. You are now a programmer who makes some pixels through CSS.

      Graphic Art is dead. Except if you make movie posters or something.

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  8. 10

    Having worked in both large IT corporates and as a freelancer with small businesses, I find this article applicable to both. I rejoice over the idea of multi-functional designers. I just wish more companies will provide such opportunities but at the same time don’t expect everyone to know or do everything well (where’s the balance?) Having the “big picture” mindset is important to allow us to design the solution well, in every facet the solution will interface with the end users. Thanks for the article!

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  9. 11

    NerdyHippo (Popstar Designer)

    August 26, 2013 6:54 am

    Unless you are a designer that works in a very large organization that can afford to break a designers role into separate categories (visual, interaction, experience), every designer will find themselves in a hybrid role. The title “Product Designer” actually draws my attention when looking in a job board, especially in comparison to the yack-inducing “cat lover” or “rockstar anything”.

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    • 12

      It’s kind of like if print designers were expected to design and manufacture printing presses.

      Oh, well. Programmers rule the universe.

      Art is dead.

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  10. 13

    Appreciate for sharing this information i like it

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  11. 15

    Job requirements:
    Jack-of-all-Trades and Master-of-All.

    Is McDonald’s accepting applications?

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  12. 16

    Great article! Now, if only more people we work for read and followed/believed this!

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  13. 17

    Wow…. There is not a single line I have not agreed with in this article (MAYBE I would consider breaking it into a few smaller articles, just to have more time to think over each point).

    I especially liked the part about MVPs, I think designers that understand this concept (The Lean approach in general) are bound to become a more well rounded – thus, valuable – team member, in any team!

    I will definitely be following you on the web Cassie, thanks! :)

    @NirBenita
    NirBenita.me

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