There are specialized terms referring to all sorts of aspects of web design. For someone just getting started in web design, or someone looking to have a site designed, all the technical jargon can be overwhelming. Especially the acronyms.
Below is a guide to industry terms that should get you well on your way to understanding what web designers are talking about. In addition, we’ve provided some resources for each term to give you more in-depth information.
Basically, this is the ability of a website to be used by people with disabilities, including visually impaired visitors using screen readers, hearing impaired visitors using no sound, color blind people, or those with other disabilities. A website with low accessibility is basically going to be impossible for those with disabilities to use. Accessibility is particularly important for sites providing information to those with disabilities (healthcare sites, government sites, etc.), though it is an important aspect to consider when designing any site.
- Resources on Accessible Web Design2 from the University of Washington.
- An Introduction to Accessible Web Design3 from Sitepoint.
- 100 Ajax Tutorials and Resources5 from Tutorial Blog.
- from Woork.
- 80+ AJAX-Solutions for Professional Coding6 on this site.
Anchor Text Link
The text a link uses to refer to your site. This can make a big difference in your site’s search engine results. See also: Backlink.
- Anchor Text Explained7 from AssociatePrograms.com
- Anchor Text Optimization8 from WebProNews
- Backlink Anchor Text Analysis9 from webconfs.com
A portmanteau that combines “automatically” and “magically.” Generally, it refers to something that has a complex technical process that’s hidden from users, so that something almost appears to work by magic. If you think about it, many modern internet-based technologies could be classified as “automagical.”
Back End Link
The back end of a website is the part hidden from view of regular website visitors. The back end generally includes the information structure, applications, and the CMS controlling content on the site.
Backlinks are links from other sites back to your own. They’re sometimes also referred to as “trackbacks” (especially on blogs). Backlinks have a huge impact on your sites search rankings. Lots of backlinks from high-ranking sites can greatly improve your search engine results, especially if those links use keywords in their anchor text.
- Why That Site with 50 Backlinks Beats Your Site with 1000 Backlinks14 from Jim Boykin’s Blog.
- The Importance of Backlinks15 from webconfs.com
Bad Neighborhood Link
A “bad neighborhood” refers to the server where your site is hosted. A site hosted on a server that hosts other sites that spam or use black-hat SEO practices can end up penalized by search engines solely because of their proximity to those sites. In other words, be very careful about which web host you choose, what their terms of service are, and how strictly they enforce those terms if you want to avoid being penalized because of what your neighbors are doing. Linking to sites in bad neighborhoods can also have a negative effect on your search rankings.
- Is Your Site Living in a Bad Neighborhood?17 from RSS Pieces
- Text Link Checker Tool18 from Bad Neighborhood
- SEO Pitfalls: Outbound Links to Bad Neighborhood Websites from Consider: Open
Bandwidth can refer to two different things: the rate at which data can be transferred or the total amount of data allowed to be transferred from a web host during a given month (or other hosting service term) before overage charges are applied. It is generally referred to in term of bits-per-second (bps), kilobits per second (kbs), or other metric measurements. Lower bandwidth internet connections (such as dial-up) mean data loads slower than with high bandwidth connections (like cable or fiber).
Below the Fold Link
This term is a carry-over from newspaper publishing days. In newspaper terms, “below the fold” means content was on the bottom half of the page (below the physical fold in the paper). In web design terms, “below the fold” refers to the content that is generally going to be below the point first viewable to the average website visitor in their browser (in other words, viewers would have to scroll down to see the content).
- Scrolling Research Report V2.0—Part 1: Visibility and Scroll Reach22 from ClickTale
- Blasting the Myth of the Fold23 from Boxes and Arrows
- Below the Fold: Why Scrolling Isn’t a Bad Thing24 from Build Internet!
Bounce Rate Link
A website’s bounce rate is the percentage of people who leave the site from the same page they entered the site, without clicking through to any other pages. This can be a good indicator of how good a website’s navigation is, as well as an indicator of the quality of the site’s content (a very high bounce rate doesn’t bode well for either of those things).
- What is Your Bounce Rate? from Lunartics
- What Your Bounce Rate is Trying to Tell You25 form FutureNow’s GrokDotCom
Breadcrumbs are the bit of navigation elements that generally appear near the top of a give web page that show you the pages and subpages the appear before the page you’re on. For examples, on a blog, the breadcrumbs might look something like: Home > Category > Year > Month > Post (or they might be a lot simpler that that). The breadcrumbs term comes from the fairy tale “Hansel and Gretel26.”
- Breadcrumb Navigation27 from Web Design Practices
- Breadcrumb Navigation Increasingly Useful28 from Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox
- Breadcrumbs In Web Design: Examples And Best Practices29 from this site.
Browser refers to the program a website visitor is using to view the web site. Examples include Safari, Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, and Internet Explorer.
- BrowserShots31 lets you check cross-browser compatibility of any site
- Accessible Design Guide32 from Viewable with Any Browser
- Designing for Every Browser: How to Make Your Site Fully Cross Browser Compatible from Design Vitality
Cached files are those that are saved or copied (downloaded) by a web browser so that the next time that user visits the site, the page loads faster.
- Caching Tutorial33 from mnot.net
- How Caching Works34 from HowStuffWorks
- Web Caching and Content Delivery Resources35 on web-caching.com
Cascading Style Sheets Link
Also referred to simply as CSS, Cascading Style Sheets are used to define the look and feel of a web site outside of the actual HTML file(s) of the site. In recent years, CSS has replaced tables and other HTML-based methods for formatting and laying out websites. The benefits to using CSS are many, but some of the most important are the simplification of a site’s HTML files (which can actually increase search engine rankings) and the ability to completely change the style of a site by changing just one file, without having to make changes to content.
- Cascading Style Sheets37 from Web Design Group
- CSS Basics38 from splashpressmedia
- CSS from the Ground Up39 from Webpage Design for Designers
Client-side refers to scripts that are run in a viewer’s browser, instead of on a web server (as in server-side scripts). Client-side scripts are generally faster to interact with, though they can take longer to load initially.
- Tutorial 16: Client-Side Scripting 10140 from Webreference.com
- Understanding Client-Side Scripting41 from PCMag.com
Content Management System Link
Also known as a CMS, the Content Management System is a backend tool for managing a site’s content that separates said content from the design and functionality of the site. Using a CMS generally makes it easier to change the design or function of a site independent of the site’s content. It also (usually) makes it easier for content to be added to the site for people who aren’t designers.
- OpenSourceCMS42 lets you try out different CMSs without downloading or installing.
- List of Content Management Systems43 from Wikipedia
- 10 Things To Consider When Choosing The Perfect CMS44 from this site
In web design terms, a comment is a bit of information contained in a site’s HTML or XHTML files that is ignored by the browser. Comments are used to identify different parts of the file and as reference notes. Good commenting makes it much easier for a designer (whether the original designer or someone else) to make changes to the site, as it keeps it clear which parts of the code perform which functions. There are different comment formats for different programming and markup languages.
- HTML Comment Tag45 from w3schools.com
- Adding HTML Comments46 from Page Resource
- Good Comments Make Good HTML47 from AstaHost
See Cascading Style Sheets.
CSS Framework Link
A CSS framework is a collection of CSS files used as the starting point to make XHTML and CSS web sites quickly and painlessly. They usually contain CSS styles for typography and layout.
- Top 12 CSS Frameworks and How to Understand Them49 from Speckyboy Design Magazine
- Blueprint50: A CSS Framework
- Guidelines for Developing Your Own CSS Framework51 from W3Avenue
Deprecated code is code that is no longer included in the language specifications. Generally this happens because it is replaced with more accessible or efficient alternatives.
- DHTML Tutorial55 from w3schools
- DHTML Explained57 from HTMLSource
In GIF and certain other image formats, there is a limited color palette used for each image. Because of this, not all colors in an image are presented. Dither is used to approximate these colors by combining pixels of different colors side by side.
- Color Dithering in GIF Images59 from Web Developers Notes
- Dithering GIF Images: Optimizing GIF Files60 from Webdesign.About.com
Stands for Domain Name Service (alternately Domain Name System or Domain Name Server). Basically, it’s the thing that converts IP addresses into domain names. DNS servers are provided with the IP address of your web server when you assign your domain name to those servers. In turn, when someone types your domain name into their web browser, those DNS servers translate the domain name to the IP address and point the browser to the correct web server.
The doctype declaration specifies which version of HTML is used in a document. It has a direct effect on whether your HTML will validate.
- HTML DOCTYPE Declaration62 from w3schools
- Fix Your Site With the Right DOCTYPE!63 from A List Apart
- Choosing a DOCTYPE64 from Web Design Group
Dom, The Link
Stands for Document Object Model. It’s a language-indpendent, cross-platform convention for representing objects in XML, XHTML, and HTML documents. Rules for interacting with and programming the DOM are specified in the DOM API.
- The Document Object Model Dissected66 from Web Developer’s Virtual Library
The domain is the name by which a website is identified. The domain is associated with an IP address. Domains can be purchased with any combination of letters, hyphens (-), and numbers (though it can’t start with a hyphen). Depending on the extension (.com, .net, .org, etc.), a domain can be anywhere up to 26 to 63 characters long.
- Domain Name Information67 from 4 Creating a Website
- ICANN68 stands for “Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers”
- Choosing the Domain Name for Your Blog69 from ProBlogger
Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.
- DTD Tutorial70 from w3schools
- XML DTD – An Introduction to XML Document Type Definitions71 from XMLFiles.com
- Document Type Definition (DTD) Tools72 from Stylus Studio
Short for electronic commerce. It’s the buying and selling of goods online, through websites. Products sold through e-commerce can be physical products that require shipping, or digital products delivered electronically.
- E-Commerce Resources74 from Inc.com
- The Art of eCommerce Web Design75 from Sitepoint
- 25+ Magento Templates For Your E-Commerce Business76 from this site
- 5 Universal Principles For Successful eCommerce Sites77 from this site
- 35 Free High-Quality E-Commerce Templates78 from this site
Elastic Layout Link
An elastic layout is one that uses percentages and ems for widths paired with a max-width style to allow the site layout to stretch when font sizes are changed. It’s ability to flex to accommodate the browser width and reader’s font preferences are where it gets its name.
- Elastic Design80 from A List Apart
- The Incredible Em & Elastic Layouts with CSS81 from Jon Tangerine
- Archive for Elastic Layout82 from CSSGlance Gallery
In XML, an element is the central building block of any document. Individual elements can contain text, other elements, or both.
- XML Elements83 from w3schools
- XML Element84 from tizag.com
- The Basics of Using XML Schema to Define Elements85 from IBM
Em is a unit of measurement for sizing fonts and other elements within a web page relative to the item’s parent element. A 1em font is equal to the point size for the font already defined in the parent element (2em would be twice the current size; .5em would be half the current size).
- How to Size Text Using Ems86 from Clagnut
- The Amazing Em Unit and Other CSS Best Practices87 from InformIT
- Effective Style with em88 from Monday By Noon
Embedded Style Link
An embedded style is a CSS style written into the head of an XHTML document. It only effects the elements on that page, instead of site-wide as a separate CSS file does. Style in an embedded style sheet will override styles from the linked CSS file.
Ex is a measurement for font height or size relative to the height of a lowercase “x” in that font family.
Extensible Markup Language Link
Otherwise known as XML. XML is a markup language used for writing custom markup languages. In other words, XML describes how to write new languages (it’s sometimes referred to as a “meta” language because of this). It also serves as a basic syntax that allows different kinds of computers and applications to share information without having to go through multiple conversion layers.
- XML Tutorial27195 from w3schools
- A Technical Introduction to XML96 from XML.com
- XML for the Absolute Beginner97 from JavaWorld
External Style Sheet Link
This is a CSS document that is written in a separate, external document. The biggest advantage to using an external style sheet is that it can be linked to by multiple HTML/XHTML files (which means changes made to the style sheet will effect all the pages linked to it without having to change each page individually).
- CSS How To…98 from w3schools
- How to Use External Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) on Web Pages99 from Webdesign.About.com
- Using External CSS Style Sheets100 from Tech-Evangelist
Favicons are tiny (generally 16×16 pixels, though some are 32×32 pixels), customizable icons displayed in the web address bar in most browsers next to the web address. They’re either 8-bit or 24-bit in color depth and are saved in either .ico, .gif or .png file formats.
- favicon.cc101 is an online favicon generator
- FavIcon from Pics102 creates a favicon from an image
- How to Create a Favicon.ico103 from PhotoshopSupport.com
Fixed Width Layout Link
A fixed width layout has a set width (generally defined in pixels) set by the designer. The width stays the same regardless of screen resolution, monitor size, or browser window size. It allows for minute adjustments to be made to a design that will stay consistent across browsers. Designers have more control over exactly how a site will appear across platforms with this type of layout.
- Creating a Fixed-Width Layout with CSS105 from TechRepublic
- CSS Layouts: The Fixed. The Fluid. The Elastic.106 from Beast-Blog.com
- Fixed-Width CSS Layouts107 from Search Engine Friendly Layouts
Fluid Layout Link
See Liquid Layout
Focal Point Link
The focal point of a web site is the spot on a web page that they eye is naturally drawn to. This could be an image, a banner, text, Flash content, or just about anything else. You want to make sure that whatever is acting as your focal point is the most important part of your site.
- Create a Focal Point for Web Designs – Before and After Web Page Redesign109 from Webdesign.About.com
- The Focal Point is the Most Important Design Element110 from Stylish Design
The fold is a term carried over from newspaper design and pagination (where the fold referred to the physical fold in the paper). The fold in a website is the point on the webpage that rests at the bottom of someone’s browser (in other words, to see anything below the fold, they would have to scroll down). There are varying opinions on how important the fold is in web design.
Font Family Link
Font family is a group designation for defining the typefaces used in CSS documents. The font family tag generally lists multiple fonts to be used, and usually ends with the generic font category (such as “serif” or “sans-serif’).
- CSS font-family Property113 from w3schools
- How to Decide Which Font Family to Use114 from Webdesign.About.com
Font Style Link
In CSS, the font style refers solely to whether a font is italic or not.
Font Weight Link
The font weight refers to how thick or thin (bold or light) a font looks.
The front-end is basically the opposite of the back-end. It’s all the components of a website that a visitor to the site can see (pages, images, content, etc.) Specifically, it’s the interface that visitors use to access the site’s content. It’s also sometimes referred to as the User Interface.
Graceful Degradation Link
Graceful degradation refers to a website’s ability to have elements that may take advantage of the capabilities of newer browsers done in a way that allows users with older browsers to still view the site in a manner that at least allows access to basic content. It also applies to making sure that if one small portion of your site doesn’t work in someone’s browser, it doesn’t break your entire site for them.
Graphical User Interface Link
Also referred to by its acronym: GUI. A graphical user interface uses an input device (like the mouse) and visual representations of how the user is able to interact with a web application. In other words, it’s all the front-end stuff you see on a web application. It’s purpose is to allow you to interact with a web application without having to enter code.
- Graphical User Interface124 from Wikipedia
- Principles of Good GUI Design
- A Summary of Principles of User-Interface Design125
Also referred to a “hex” numbers, they are a base-16 numbering system used to define colors online. Hex numbers include the numerals 0-9 and letters A-F. Hexadecimal numbers are written in three sets of hex pairs. Because screen colors are RGB (Red, Green, Blue), the first pair defines the red hue, the second pair defines the green hue, and the third pair defines the blue.
- The Hex Hub127 is a chart to help choose hexadecimal colors
- 500+ Colors128 from cloford.com
- Color Charts129 from Webmonkey
Contrary to popular belief, a hit does not represent a single visitor to a website. A hit is actually a request for a single file from your web server. This means one page can actually generate multiple hits, as each page generally has more than one file (an html or other base file, a css file, multiple images, etc.) and each one is requested from the server whenever the page is loaded. Some marketing people like to quote hits to unknowing consumers as the number makes their site sound like it’s getting a whole lot more traffic than it actually is.
- The Difference Between Hits, Visitors, Visits, and Page Views130 from Opentracker
- Hits Explained131 from MediaCollege.com
The .htaccess file is the default directory-level configuration file on Apache servers. They are also known as “distributed configuration files.” Configuration directives contained in the .htaccess file apply to the directory in which the file is placed as well as all of its subdirectories. Within the .htaccess file things like authorization and authentication, rewriting of URLs, cache control and customized error responses can all be specified.
- .htaccess Cheatsheet133 from The Jackol’s Den
- Htaccess Tools134 gives tools to generate an .htaccess file
Stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It’s the primary language used to write web pages. HTML is primarily intended as a way to provide content on websites (with CSS handling the layout and stylistic options), though it can also be used to determine how that content is displayed.
- HTML Tutorial136 from w3schools
- HTML Code Tutorial137 provides comprehensive HTML tutorials
- HTML Primer138 from HTML Goodies
HTML Tag Link
Also referred to as an HTML element, an HTML tag is the bit of code that describes how that particular piece of the web page it’s on is formatted. Typical tags specify things like headings, paragraphs, links, and a variety of other items.
- HTML Tags139 from Webdesign.About.com
- HTML Tags140 from HTML Dog
- HTML Tag Quick Reference Guide141 from DevX.com
Stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. HTTP is a set of rules for transferring hypertext requests between a web browser and a web server.
- HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol143 from W3C
- HyperText Transfer Protocol144 from Web Developer’s Virtual Library
Similar to HTTP, HTTPS stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol over SSL (Secure Socket Layer) or, alternately, HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure. Like HTTP, it’s a set of rules for transferring hypertext requests between browsers and servers, but this time it’s done over a secure, encrypted connection.
- HTTP Secure145 from Wikipedia
- Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer146 from Freebase
A hyperlink is a link from one web page to another, either on the same site or another one. Generally these are text or images, and are highlighted in some way (text is often underlined or put in a different color or font weight). The inclusion of hyperlinks are the “hyper” part of “hypertext.”
- Creating Hyperlinks148 from Iron Spider
- How to Create a Hyperlink in Dreamweaver149 from Webdesign.About.com
Hypertext is any computer-based text that includes hyperlinks. Hypertext can also include presentation devices like tables or images, in addition to plain text and links.
- Hypertext150 from Wikipedia
- The Definition of Hypertext and Its History as a Concept151 from Cyber Arts Web
Short for Inline Frame. An iframe is used to display one or more web pages within another normal web page (one that isn’t a frameset page).
- HTML iFrame Tag152 from w3schools
- Scripting iFrames—Tutorial and Examples153 from Dynamic Web Coding
- Remote Scripting with IFRAME154 from Apple Developer Connection
Image Map Link
An image map is used in XHTML to allow different parts of an image to become different clickable elements (and can also allow some portions of the image to have no clickable element).
- How to Make and Image Map156 from HTML Code Tutorial
- How-To: Creating Image Maps157 from Elated
- CSS Image Maps158 from Frank Manno
In CSS, elements that don’t have a pre-defined style will take on the style of their parent element within the document tree.
- Inheritance and Cascading Styles in CSS159 from Web Design from Scratch
- Cascading Order and Inheritance in CSS160 from David’s Kitchen
- CSS Cheat Sheet: Inheritance, Cascade, Specificity from Community MX
Inline Style Link
Elements with CSS written directly around the element it affects, instead of in a separate style sheet or header style.
Stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (or sometimes Perl or Python), and is referring to the specifications of a web server (defining the operating system, web server, database, and scripting language, in that order). One of the advantages of LAMP setups is that the software used is all free and open source.
Landing Page Link
A landing page is the page where a visitor first enters a website. Oftentimes, a special landing page is created to elicit a specific action from the new visitor (usually in connection with an advertising or marketing campaign).
- Landing Page Tutorials and Case Studies166 from Copyblogger
- 11 Ways to Improve Landing Pages167 from Digital Web Magazine
- 14 Instant Landing Page Upgrades168 from Conversation Marketing
Link Farm Link
A link farm is any website setup specifically to increase the link popularity of other websites by increasing the number of incoming links to that site. While some link farms are single pages listing unrelated links, others consist of networks of sites that contain multiple links back and forth to one another. Search engines can generally recognize these types of schemes and often remove link farms from their directories and penalize the sites linking to and from them.
- Promotion Tip: Link Farms Grow Spam169 from NetMechanic
- What is a Link Farm?170 from Webdesign.About.com
- Link Farm: What It Is and How You Can Identify It171 from SEO for Blogging
Liquid Layout Link
A liquid layout is one that is based on percentages of the browser window’s size. The layout of the site will change with the width of the browser, even if the visitor changes their browser size while viewing the page. Liquid layouts take full advantage of a person’s browser width, optimizing the amount of content you can fit onscreen at one time.
- Liquid Layouts the Easy Way173 from Max Design
- Create a Simple Liquid Layout174 from .net Magazine
- The Perfect 3 Column Liquid Layout175 from Matthew James Taylor
- Creating Liquid Layouts with Negative Margins176 from A List Apart
This refers to the coding applied to a text document to change it into an HTML, XML, or other Markup Language document.
- Bulletproof HTML: 37 Steps to Perfect Markup177 from Sitepoint
- Markup as a Craft178 from Digital Web Magazine
- Markup Guide179 from Mezzoblue
Meta Data Link
Meta data is the data contained in the header that offers information about the web page that a visitor is currently on. The information contained in the meta data isn’t viewable on the web page (except in the source code). Meta data is contained within meta tags.
Meta Tag Link
A meta tag is an HTML tag used to include meta data within the header of your web page.
- How to Use HTML Meta Tags182 from Search Engine Watch
- Meta Tag Generator183 from AddMe.com
- HTML Meta184 from w3schools
Navigation refers to the system that allows visitors to a website to move around that site. Navigation is most often thought of in terms of menus, but links within pages, breadcrumbs, related links, pagination, and any other links that allow a visitor to move from one page to another are included in navigation.
- The 8 Types of Navigation Pages186 from User Interface Engineering
- Basic Principles of Web Site Navigation187 from Web Developer’s Journal
- CSS Menus188 from 13styles
Nesting refers to putting one HTML element within another element. When this is done, the elements have to be closed in the reverse order from how they were opened.
Non-Breaking Space Link
A non-breaking space (also referred to as ) is a white-space character that isn’t condensed by HTML. It’s primary function is to hold open table cells or add spacing between words (or a the beginning of paragraphs if an indent is desired).
- In HTML, What is a Non-Breaking Space?192 from Indiana University’s University Information Technology Service Knowledge Base
- Non-Breaking Space193 on Wikipedia
Open Source Link
Open source refers to the source code of a computer program being made available to the general public. Open source software includes both web-based and desktop applications. Open source programs are generally free or very low cost and are developed by teams of people, sometimes comprised mostly of volunteers.
- Open Source Initiative194
- The Open Source Web Design Toolbox: 100 Web Design Template Sources, Tools and Resources from Design Vitality
- 30 Useful Open Source Apps for Web Designers195 from Six Revisions
A pageview is a request for an entire web page document from a server by a visitor’s browser. In other words, for each page view your site had, someone (or a search engine spider) looked at that page.
- Pageviews are Obsolete from Evhead
- Page View Metrics? Bah, Humbug!196 from Matt Cutts
- Tyranny of the Page View Nearly Over? from ReadWriteWeb
Short for “permanent link.” Generally used only on blogs, a permalink is a link that is the permanent web address of a given blog post. Since most blogs have constantly-changing content, the permalink offers a way for readers to bookmark or link to specific posts even after those posts have moved off the home page or primary category page.
- What is a Permalink and Why Do I Need It?198 from Blogging Basics 101
- Using Permalinks199 from the WordPress Codex
A plug-in is a bit of third party code that extends the capabilities of a website. It’s most often used in conjunction with a CMS or blogging platform. Plug-ins are a way to extend the functionality of a website without having to redo the core coding of the site. Plugins can also refer to bits of third-party software installed within a computer program to increase its functionality.
- 22 Firefox 3 Plugins Web Designers Can’t Live Without200 from Design Reviver
- Designing Plugins for Reuse201 from Intellectual Cramps
- Writing a Plugin202 from the WordPress Codex
Progressive Enhancement Link
Progressive enhancement is a strategy for web design that uses web technologies in a layered fashion that allows everyone to access the basic content and functionality of a web page, using any browser or Internet connection, while also providing those with better bandwidth or more advanced browser software an enhanced version of the page.
- Understanding Progressive Enhancement203 from A List Apart
- Progressive Enhancement with CSS204 by Aaron Gustafson
- Progressive CSS Enhancemen205 by John Resig
- Pragmatic progressive enhancement – why you should bother with it by Christian Heilmann
Property is a CSS term and is roughly equivalent to an HTML tag. Properties are what define how a style should appear on a given web page.
- CSS Properties206 from HTML Dog
- CSS Properties Index207 from Jens Meiert
- Complete CSS Guide—Properties Introduction208 from Westciv
A pseudo-element is an element used to add a special effect to certain selectors.
- CSS Pseudo-Elements210 from w3schools
- Learn CSS, Part 7: Pseudo Elements211 from Dev Articles
- Understanding Pseudo-Elements212 from Snook.ca
Pseudo Class Link
Like pseudo-elements, pseudo classes are used to add special effects to certain CSS selectors.
Really Simple Syndication Link
Also referred to as RSS. RSS is a standardized XML format that allows content to be syndicated from one site to another. It’s most commonly used on blogs. RSS also allows visitors to subscribe to a blog or other site and receive updates via a feed reader.
- What is RSS? RSS Explained216 from whatisrss.com
- RSS 2.0 Specification217 from RSS 2.0 at Harvard Law
- What is RSS?218 from Software Garden
Refers to the physical number of pixels displayed on a screen (such as 1280×1024). Unlike in print, display resolution does not refer to the number of pixels or dots per inch on a computer screen, as this can be changed by changing the resolution of the screen (which, of course, does not change the physical size of the screen). The resolution of an image, however, is often referred to in terms of pixels per inch, though this has very little effect on how the image is displayed on screen.
Generally, a schema is an XML document used in place of a DTD to describe other XML documents.
- PHP Tutorial: Writing Your First PHP Script: Feedback Form Script224 from thesitewizard.com
- HTML Scripts225 from tizag.com
In CSS, the selector is the item a style will be applied to.
- Selectutorial CSS Selectors226 from Max Design
- Performance Impact of CSS Selectors227 from High Performance Web Sites Blog
- CSS Advanced Selectors—Functional and Design Specification228 from Adobe Open Source
Semantic Markup Link
In semantic markup, content is written within XHTML tags that offer context to what the content contains. Basic semantic markup refers to using items like header and paragraph tags, though semantic markup is also being used to provide much more useful context to web pages in an effort to make the web as a whole more semantic.
- Writing Semantic Markup229 from Digital Web Magazine
- Explaining Semantic Markup230 from Robert’s Talk
- The Definitive Guide to Semantic Web Markup for Blogs231 from Pearsonified
Server-side refers to scripts run on a web server, as opposed to in a user’s browser. Server-side scripts often take a bit longer to run than a client-side script, as each page must reload when an action is taken.
- from w3schools
Stands for Standard Generalized Markup Language. It’s a markup language used for defining the structure of a document. SGML isn’t mentioned very often, but it’s the markup language that serves as the basis for both XML and HTML.
Stands for Simple Object Access Protocol. It’s an XML-based protocol exchanging information across the internet to allow an application on one site to access an application or database on another site.
- SOAP Tutorial236 from w3schools
- Simple Object Access Protocol237 from scottnichol.com
- SOAP, the Simple Object Access Protocol238 from Web Developer’s Virtual Library
A specification is a document that offers an explicit definition and requirements for a web service or technology and generally includes how the technology is meant to be used, along with the tags, elements, and any dependencies.
- List of Web Service Specifications239 from Wikipedia
- W3C—Worldwide Web Consortium240 develops specifications for any internet technologies
A tag is a set of markup characters that are used around an element to indicate its start and end. Tags can also include HTML or other code to specify how that element should look or behave on the page. See also HTML Tag.
- HTML Tags / Codes / Web Page Design242 from Web Source
- Tag List243 from davesite.com
- Overview of All Tags244 from Web Design Group
A template is a file used to create a consistent design across a website. Templates are often used in conjunction with a CMS and contain both structural information about how a site should be set up, but also stylistic information about how the site should look.
- Dreamweaver Tutorial: How to Use Templates to Manage Your Website in Dreamweaver CS3245 from thesitewizard.com
- Making a Template in Photoshop246 from voidix
Stands for Uniform Resource Locator. A site’s URL is its address, the item that specifies where on the Internet it can the found.
Usability refers to how easy it is for a visitor to your site to use your site in its intended manner. In other words, are navigation, content, images, and any interactive elements easy to use, functioning the way they were intended, and that your intended target visitor will not need any special training in order to use your site.
- Website Design250 from Usability First
- 10 Principles Of Effective Web Design251 from this site
- 25-Point Website Usability Checklist252 from User Effect
Valid web pages are those that return no errors based on the type of HTML/XHTML specified in the doctype declaration at the beginning of the file. In other words, the code used on the page conforms to the specifications for that version of HTML/XHTML. This can be checked through various validation services, most commonly the one from W3C.
- W3C Markup Validation Service254
- Validating a Website255 from the WordPress Codex
- How To: Validating Your Website The Easy Way—Part 1 from Blog Ingenuity
Web Page Link
A web page is a single document, generally written in HTML/XHTML, meant to be viewed in a web browser. In many cases, web pages also include other coding and programming (such as PHP, Ruby on Rails, or ASP). Web sites are generally built from multiple interlinked web pages.
Web Server Link
A web server is a computer that has software installed and networking capabilities that allow it to host web sites and pages and make them available to internet users located elsewhere. There are a few different setups that can be used for a web server, including the LAMP setup mentioned earlier.
- How Web Servers Work259 from HowStuffWorks
- Geek to Live: How to Set Up a Personal Home Web Server260 from Lifehacker
- The Apache Software Foundation261 provides the open source Apache web server software
Web Standards Link
Standards are specifications recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium for standardizing website design. The main purpose of web standards is to make it easier for both designers and those who create web browsers to make sites that will appear consistent across platforms.
- Web Standards262 from The Motive Web Design Glossary
- World Wide Web Consortium263
- What Are Web Standards? A Comprehensive Explanation of What is Comprised in the Term264 from Robert’s Talk
- Web Standards Checklist265 from Max Design
Stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. Basically, XHTML is HTML 4.0 that has been rewritten to comply with XML rules.
Stands for Extensible Markup Language. XML is a specification for creating other, custom markup languages. It’s an extensible language because it allows for the user to define the mark-up elements.
Further Resources Link
- About.com’s Web Design Glossary273
Defines tons of different web-design related terms.
- The Motive Web Design Glossary274
Offers a very complete guide to different web terminology.
- 1 #
- 2 http://www.washington.edu/doit/Resources/web-design.html
- 3 http://www.sitepoint.com/article/accessible-web-design/
- 4 #
- 5 http://tutorialblog.org/100-ajax-tutorials-and-resources/
- 7 http://www.associateprograms.com/articles/anchor-text-explained.html
- 8 http://archive.webpronews.com/ebusiness/seo/wpn-4-20040408AnchorTextOptimization.html
- 9 http://www.webconfs.com/anchor-text-analysis.php
- 10 #
- 11 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/automagical
- 12 http://www.feld.com/wp/archives/2007/11/whats-the-origin-of-automagically.html
- 13 http://code.tutsplus.com/articles/building-the-back-end-of-a-photo-site--net-1942
- 14 http://www.jimboykin.com/site-backlinks/
- 15 http://www.webconfs.com/importance-of-backlinks-article-5.php
- 16 #
- 17 http://www.rsspieces.com/is-your-site-living-in-a-bad-neighborhoo
- 18 http://www.bad-neighborhood.com/text-link-tool.htm
- 19 http://www.speakeasy.net/speedtest/
- 20 http://www.findmyhosting.com/bandwidth.htm
- 21 #
- 22 http://blog.clicktale.com/2007/10/05/clicktale-scrolling-research-report-v20-part-1-visibility-and-scroll-reach/
- 23 http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/blasting-the-myth-of
- 24 http://buildinternet.com/2008/12/below-the-fold-why-scrolling-isnt-a-bad-thing/
- 25 http://www.grokdotcom.com/2008/07/15/what-your-bounce-rate-is-trying-to-tell-you/
- 26 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hansel_and_Gretel
- 27 http://www.webdesignpractices.com/navigation/breadcrumb.html
- 28 http://www.useit.com/alertbox/breadcrumbs.html
- 29 https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/03/17/breadcrumbs-in-web-design-examples-and-best-practices-2/
- 30 #
- 31 http://browsershots.org/
- 32 http://www.anybrowser.org/campaign/abdesign.html
- 33 http://www.mnot.net/cache_docs/
- 34 http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cache.htm
- 35 http://www.web-caching.com/
- 36 #
- 37 http://htmlhelp.com/reference/css/
- 38 http://www.cssbasics.com/
- 39 http://www.wpdfd.com/issues/70/css_from_the_ground_up/
- 40 http://www.webreference.com/html/tutorial16/
- 41 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,1564972,00.asp
- 42 http://www.opensourcecms.com/
- 43 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_content_management_systems
- 44 https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/03/05/10-things-to-consider-when-choosing-the-perfect-cms/
- 45 http://www.w3schools.com/tags/tag_comment.asp
- 46 http://www.pageresource.com/html/comments.htm
- 47 http://www.astahost.com/Good-Comments-Good-Html-t3029.html
- 48 #
- 49 http://speckyboy.com/2008/03/28/top-12-css-frameworks-and-how-to-understand-them/
- 50 http://www.blueprintcss.org/
- 51 http://www.w3avenue.com/2009/04/01/guidelines-for-developing-your-own-css-framework/
- 52 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deprecation
- 53 http://www.tutorialspoint.com/html/html_deprecated_tags.htm
- 54 http://monc.se/kitchen/140/disabling-deprecated-html-using-css
- 55 http://w3schools.sinsixx.com/dhtml/default.asp.htm
- 58 #
- 59 http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/graphics/dithering_in_gifs.php3
- 60 http://webdesign.about.com/od/gifs/ig/Dithering-GIF-Images/
- 61 http://www.howstuffworks.com/dns.htm
- 62 http://www.w3schools.com/tags/tag_DOCTYPE.asp
- 63 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/doctype/
- 64 http://htmlhelp.com/tools/validator/doctype.html
- 66 http://www.wdvl.com/Authoring/DHTML/DOM/
- 67 http://www.4creatingawebsite.com/domain_name_information.htm
- 68 http://www.icann.org/
- 69 http://www.problogger.net/archives/2006/02/16/choosing-the-domain-name-for-your-blog/
- 70 http://www.w3schools.com/xml/xml_dtd_intro.asp
- 71 http://xmlfiles.com/dtd/
- 72 http://www.stylusstudio.com/dtd.html
- 73 #
- 74 http://www.inc.com/e-commerce
- 75 http://www.sitepoint.com/article/art-ecommerce-web-design/
- 76 https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/05/05/25-magento-templates-for-your-e-commerce-business/
- 77 https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/03/23/designing-for-the-user-experience-in-ecommerce/
- 78 https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/01/25/35-free-high-quality-e-commerce-templates/
- 79 #
- 80 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/elastic/
- 81 http://jontangerine.com/log/2007/09/the-incredible-em-and-elastic-layouts-with-css
- 82 http://www.cssglance.com/category/gallery/layout-technique/elastic-layout/
- 83 http://www.w3schools.com/XML/xml_elements.asp
- 84 http://www.tizag.com/xmlTutorial/xmlelement.php
- 85 http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/xml-schema/
- 86 http://www.clagnut.com/blog/348/
- 87 http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=397663
- 88 https://mondaybynoon.com/effective-style-with-em/
- 89 http://www.quackit.com/css/embedded_style_sheets.cfm
- 90 http://www.htmlite.com/CSS001b.php
- 91 #
- 92 http://www.xs4all.nl/~sbpoley/webmatters/emex.html
- 93 http://kb.mozillazine.org/Em_units_versus_ex_units
- 94 #
- 95 http://www.w3schools.com/xml/default.asp
- 96 http://www.xml.com/pub/a/98/10/guide0.html
- 97 http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-04-1999/jw-04-xml.html
- 98 http://www.w3schools.com/CSS/css_howto.asp
- 99 http://webdesign.about.com/od/css/a/aa051203a.htm
- 100 http://www.tech-evangelist.com/2007/11/03/css-external-style-sheet/
- 101 http://www.favicon.cc/
- 102 http://www.html-kit.com/favicon/
- 103 http://www.photoshopsupport.com/tutorials/jennifer/favicon.html
- 104 http://www.freecsstemplates.org/preview/beachsunset
- 105 http://articles.techrepublic.com.com/5100-10878_11-5314471.html
- 106 http://green-beast.com/blog/?p=199
- 107 http://www.searchenginefriendlylayouts.com/fixed-width_layouts
- 108 #
- 109 http://webdesign.about.com/od/webdesignbasics/ss/focal_point_ba.htm
- 110 http://www.stylishdesign.com/the-focal-point-is-the-most-important-design-element/
- 111 http://www.360innovate.co.uk/blog/2009/05/infatuated-with-above-the-fold-web-design-by-john-ellis/
- 112 #
- 113 http://www.w3schools.com/cssref/pr_font_font-family.asp
- 114 http://webdesign.about.com/od/fonts/a/aa080204.htm
- 115 http://www.w3schools.com/cssref/pr_font_font-style.asp
- 116 http://www.hscripts.com/tutorials/css/fontp.php
- 117 http://www.w3schools.com/cssref/pr_font_weight.asp
- 118 https://developer.mozilla.org/en/CSS/font-weight
- 119 http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html
- 120 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writingainterfacestyleguide/
- 121 #
- 122 http://webtips.dan.info/graceful.html
- 123 http://www.anybrowser.org/campaign/abdesign.html#degradability
- 124 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_user_interface
- 125 http://www.sylvantech.com/~talin/projects/ui_design.html
- 126 #
- 127 http://www.december.com/html/spec/color.html
- 128 http://cloford.com/resources/colours/500col.htm
- 129 http://www.webmonkey.com/2010/02/color_charts/
- 130 http://www.opentracker.net/en/articles/hits-visitors-pageviews.jsp
- 131 http://www.mediacollege.com/internet/statistics/hits/
- 133 http://www.thejackol.com/htaccess-cheatsheet/
- 134 http://www.htaccesstools.com/
- 135 #
- 136 http://www.w3schools.com/html/DEFAULT.asp
- 137 http://www.htmlcodetutorial.com/
- 138 http://www.htmlgoodies.com/primers/html/
- 139 http://webdesign.about.com/od/htmltags/a/bl_index.htm
- 140 http://htmldog.com/reference/htmltags/
- 141 http://www.devx.com/projectcool/Article/19816
- 142 #
- 143 http://www.w3.org/Protocols/
- 144 http://www.wdvl.com/Internet/Protocols/HTTP/
- 145 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Https
- 146 http://www.freebase.com/view/en/https
- 147 #
- 148 http://www.ironspider.ca/format_text/hyperlinks.htm
- 149 http://webdesign.about.com/od/dreamweaverhowtos/ht/htdwhyperlink.htm
- 150 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext
- 151 http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/jhup/history.html#1
- 152 http://www.w3schools.com/TAGS/tag_iframe.asp
- 153 http://www.dyn-web.com/tutorials/iframes/
- 154 http://developer.apple.com/internet/webcontent/iframe.html
- 155 #
- 156 http://www.htmlcodetutorial.com/images/images_famsupp_220.html
- 157 http://www.elated.com/articles/creating-image-maps/
- 158 http://www.frankmanno.com/ideas/css-imagemap/
- 159 http://webdesignfromscratch.com/html-css/css-inheritance-cascade/
- 160 http://monc.se/kitchen/38/cascading-order-and-inheritance-in-css
- 161 http://www.quackit.com/css/inline_style_sheets.cfm
- 162 http://www.howtocreate.co.uk/tutorials/css/inline
- 163 #
- 164 http://lamphowto.com/
- 165 http://www.viswiki.com/en/LAMP_(software_bundle)
- 166 http://www.copyblogger.com/landing-pages/
- 167 http://www.digital-web.com/articles/11_ways_to_improve_landing_pages/
- 168 http://www.conversationmarketing.com/2008/10/14-instant-landing-page-upgrades.htm
- 169 http://www.netmechanic.com/news/vol5/promo_no7.htm
- 170 http://webdesign.about.com/b/2008/03/03/what-is-a-link-farm.htm
- 171 http://seoforblogging.blogspot.com/2008/08/link-farm-what-it-is-and-how-you-can.html
- 172 #
- 173 http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/liquid/
- 174 http://www.netmag.co.uk/zine/develop-css/create-a-simple-liquid-layout
- 175 http://matthewjamestaylor.com/blog/perfect-3-column.htm
- 176 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/negativemargins/
- 177 http://www.sitepoint.com/article/html-37-steps-perfect-markup/
- 178 http://www.digital-web.com/articles/markup_as_craft/
- 179 http://www.mezzoblue.com/downloads/markupguide/
- 180 #
- 181 http://htmlhelp.com/reference/html40/head/meta.html
- 182 http://searchenginewatch.com/2167931
- 183 http://www.addme.com/meta.htm
- 184 http://www.w3schools.com/tags/tag_meta.asp
- 185 #
- 186 http://www.uie.com/brainsparks/2005/11/28/the-8-types-of-navigation-pages/
- 187 http://webdevelopersjournal.com/articles/navigation.html
- 188 http://13styles.com/
- 189 #
- 190 http://webtips.dan.info/nesting.html
- 191 http://htmldog.com/guides/cssintermediate/grouping/
- 192 http://kb.iu.edu/data/agjn.html
- 193 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-breaking_space
- 194 http://www.opensource.org/
- 195 http://sixrevisions.com/tools/30-useful-open-source-apps-for-web-designers/
- 196 http://www.dullest.com/blog/page-view-metrics-bah-humbug/
- 197 #
- 198 http://www.bloggingbasics101.com/2008/11/what-is-a-permalink/
- 199 http://codex.wordpress.org/Using_Permalinks
- 200 http://designreviver.com/freebies/22-firefox-3-plugins-web-designers-cant-live-without/
- 201 https://intellectualcramps.wordpress.com/2008/12/21/designing-plugins-for-reuse/
- 202 http://codex.wordpress.org/Writing_a_Plugin
- 203 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/understandingprogressiveenhancement
- 204 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/progressiveenhancementwithcss
- 205 http://ejohn.org/blog/progressive-css-enhancement/
- 206 http://htmldog.com/reference/cssproperties/
- 207 http://meiert.com/en/indices/css-properties/
- 208 http://www.westciv.com/style_master/academy/css_tutorial/properties/index.html
- 209 http://www.w3schools.com/css/tryit.asp?filename=trycss_firstletter
- 210 http://www.w3schools.com/CSS/CSS_pseudo_elements.asp
- 211 http://www.devarticles.com/c/a/Web-Style-Sheets/Learn-CSS-part-7-Pseudo-Elements/
- 212 http://snook.ca/archives/html_and_css/understanding_pseudo_elements/
- 213 http://www.devarticles.com/c/a/Web-Style-Sheets/Learn-CSS-Pseudo-Classes/
- 214 http://htmldog.com/guides/cssintermediate/pseudoclasses/
- 215 #
- 216 http://www.whatisrss.com/
- 217 http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/rss/rss.html
- 218 http://rss.softwaregarden.com/aboutrss.html
- 219 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Display_resolution
- 220 http://www.thescreamonline.com/technology/monitor/monitor_res.html
- 221 http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-08-2005/jw-0808-xml.html
- 222 http://www.stylusstudio.com/xml_schema.html
- 223 #
- 224 http://www.thesitewizard.com/archive/feedbackphp.shtml
- 225 http://www.tizag.com/htmlT/script.php
- 226 http://css.maxdesign.com.au/selectutorial/
- 227 http://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2009/03/10/performance-impact-of-css-selectors/
- 228 http://opensource.adobe.com/wiki/display/flexsdk/CSS+Advanced+Selectors
- 229 http://www.digital-web.com/articles/writing_semantic_markup/
- 230 http://robertnyman.com/2007/10/29/explaining-semantic-mark-up/
- 231 http://www.pearsonified.com/2007/04/definitive-guide-to-semantic-markup.php
- 232 #
- 233 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SGML
- 234 http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/tei/tei-idx?type=extoc&byte=71769
- 235 #
- 236 http://www.w3schools.com/xml/xml_soap.asp
- 237 http://www.scottnichol.com/soap.htm
- 238 http://wdvl.internet.com/Authoring/Languages/XML/Soap/
- 239 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Web_service_specifications
- 240 http://www.w3.org/
- 241 #
- 242 http://www.web-source.net/html_codes_chart.htm
- 243 http://www.davesite.com/webstation/html/taglist.shtml
- 244 http://htmlhelp.com/reference/wilbur/list.html
- 245 http://www.thesitewizard.com/gettingstarted/dreamweaver5.shtml
- 246 http://www.voidix.com/website.html
- 247 #
- 248 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniform_Resource_Locator
- 249 http://www.w3.org/Addressing/URL/Overview.html
- 250 http://www.usabilityfirst.com/glossary/website-design-term/
- 251 https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/01/31/10-principles-of-effective-web-design/
- 252 http://www.usereffect.com/topic/25-point-website-usability-checklist
- 253 http://validator.w3.org/
- 254 http://validator.w3.org/
- 255 http://codex.wordpress.org/Validating_a_Website
- 256 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_page
- 257 http://computer.howstuffworks.com/web-page.htm
- 258 #
- 259 http://www.howstuffworks.com/web-server.htm
- 260 http://lifehacker.com/software/feature/how-to-set-up-a-personal-home-web-server-124212.php
- 261 http://www.apache.org/
- 262 http://www.motive.co.nz/glossary/web-standards.php
- 263 http://www.w3.org/
- 264 http://robertnyman.com/2007/05/21/what-are-web-standards-a-comprehensive-explanation-of-what-is-comprised-in-the-term/
- 265 http://maxdesign.com.au/news/checklist/
- 266 #
- 267 http://xhtml.com/en/xhtml/reference/
- 268 http://www.yourhtmlsource.com/accessibility/xhtmlexplained.html
- 269 http://www.quackit.com/xhtml/xhtml_tutorial.html
- 270 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML
- 271 http://www.w3schools.com/xml/default.asp
- 272 http://www.xml.com/
- 273 http://webdesign.about.com/od/webdesignhtmlatoz/a/blglossary.htm
- 274 http://www.motive.co.nz/glossary/index.php
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